*1 In this brief introduction to the Surah, the listeners have been warned of two things: (1) That this Book is not the composition of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) himself, but it is being sent down to him by Allah; and (2) that it is being sent down by that Allah Who is All-Mighty as well as All-Wise. His being the Almighty demands that man should not dare disobey His Commands, for if he disobeys Him, he cannot escape His punishment; and His being the All-Wise demands that man should obey and follow His Guidance and His Commands with full satisfaction and willingness of the heart, for there can be no possibility of His teachings being wrong or inadequate or harmful in any way.(45:3) Behold, for those who believe2 there are (myriad) Signs in the heavens and the earth
*2 To begin the discourse like this after the introduction, indicates that in the background there are the objections of the people of Makkah, which they were raising against the teachings of the Holy Prophet. They said: 'After alI, how can we believe this one man when he says that all those great beings to whose shrines we have been dedicated and devoted so far, are nothing and that Godhead belongs to only One God ?" About this it is being said that the world is replete with the signs of the Reality to which they are being invited. If on]y they saw with open eves, they would find those signs in themselves and outside them everywhere, which testify that this whole universe is the creation of One and only One God, and He alone is its Master and Ruler and Controller. It didn't need to be pointed out what was the nature of the signs in the earth and heavens, for the dispute at that time centred around the point that the polytheists were insisting on believing in other gods and deities also besides Allah and the Qur'an gave the message that there was neither a god nor a deity beside One God. Therefore, it was apparent by itself from the content that the signs were of the truth of Tauhid and of the refutation of shirk. As for the sentence: "The signs are for those who believe," it means that although the signs arc meant for all human beings, only those people can reach the right conclusion from their observation, who are inclined to believe; as for the heedless people, who live like animals and the stubborn people who are resolved not to believe, the existence and the non-existence of the signs is equal. The splendour and beauty of the garden is for those who can sec; a blind man cannot perceive any splendour and beauty; for him even the existence of the garden is meaningless.(45:4) and in your own creation; and in the animals which He spreads out over the earth too there are Signs for those endowed with sure faith;3
*3 That is, "The case of those who have made up their minds not to believe, or of those who have chosen for themselves to remain lost in the blind alleys of doubt, is different, but when those who have not locked up their hearts against belief and conviction, will consider seriously their own creation, the structure of their own body, and the variety of animals found on the earth, they will see countless such signs as will leave no doubt in their minds that all this did not come into being without a God, or that it stood in need of more than one Cod for its creation. (For explanation, see A1 An`am: 37-38, An-Nahl: 5.8, AI-Hajj: 57, AI-Mu'minun: 12-14, AI-Furqan: 54, Ash-Shu'ara': 78-81, An-Naml: 64, Ar-Rum: 20-21, 54, E.N.'s 14 to 18 of As-Sajdah, Ya Sin: 71-73, Az-Zumar: 6, and E.N.'s 97, 98,110 of Al-Mu'min).(45:5) and in the succession of night and day,4 and in the provision5 that Allah sends down from the sky wherewith He gives life to the earth after it had been lifeless,6 and in the change of the winds:7 (in all these) there are Signs for people who use reason.
*4 The difference of the night and day is a sign because one follows the other with full regularity, because one is bright and the other dark, because over a certain period the day goes on shortening and the night lengthening gradually till the two become equal in duration, then again the day goes on lengthening and the night shortening till the two again become equal in duration. These different kinds of variations found in the night and the day and the great aspects of wisdom that accrue from these, arc a clear pointer to the fact that the Creator of the sun and the earth and of every thing on the earth is one and that one AII-Powerful Being is keeping both these spheres under His control; that that Being is not deaf and blind and unwise but All-Wise, Who has established this unalterable system and made His earth a suitable place for the countless species of life, which He has created here in the form of vegetables, animals and men. (For explanation, see Yunus: 67, An Naml: 86, Al-Qasas: 71-73, Luqman: 29 and E.N. S0, Ya Sin: 37 and E.N. 32)
*5 "Provisions": rainfall as becomes evident from the following sentence.
*6 For explanation, see Al-Mu'minun: 18-20, Al-Furqan: 48-49, AshShu'ara': 7, An-Naml: 61, Ar-Ruth: 24, 48, Ya Sin: E.N.'s 26 to 31.
*7 The circulation of the winds implies the circulation of the different kinds of winds at different times, on different parts of the earth and at different heights, which cause change of the seasons. What deserves attention is not only that above the surface of the earth there is a thick atmosphere, which contains all those elements needed by living beings for breathing, and this thick covering has kept the earth's population safe from many of the heavenly calamities. Besides, another noteworthy thing is that the air is not just filled inertly in the atmosphere, but it blows occasionally in different ways. Sometimes a cool wind blows and sometimes a hot wind; sometimes it stops blowing and sometimes it starts blowing; sometimes it blows soft and sometimes strong, and sometimes it assumes the proportions of a storm, sometimes a dry wind blows and sometimes a moist wind; sometimes it brings the rain and sometimes it drives away the clouds. These different kinds of the winds do not blow without a purpose, but under a law and a system, which testifies that this arrangement is based on perfect wisdom, and it is serving great objectives. Then it is deeply related with coolness and heat, which go on increasing and decreasing according to the changing conditions and relationships between the earth and the sun. Furthermore, it has a deep relation with the seasonal changes and the distribution of the rain. All these facts proclaim that these arrangements have not been made haphazardly by some blind nature, nor have the sun and the earth and the air and water and vegetation and animals separate controllers, but inevitably One God alone is the Creator of them aII, and it is His Wisdom that has established this system for a great objective, and it is His power that it is functioning regularly according to a pre-ordained law.(45:6) These are Allah's Signs that We rehearse to you in Truth. In what kind of discourse after Allah and His Signs will they, then, believe?8
*8 That is, "When these people have not believed even after Allah's own arguments have been presented for His Existence and His Unity, what else can be there by which they will gain the faith ? For Allah's Word is the final thing by which a person can attain to this blessing, and the maximum of the rational arguments that could possibly be given to convince someone of an unseen reality have been presented in this Divine Word. In spite of this if a person is bent upon denial, he may persist in his denial, for his denial cannot change the reality."(45:7) Woe to every guilty impostor
*9 In other words, there is a marked difference between the person who listens to Allah's Revelations sincerely with an open mind and ponders over them seriously and the person who listens to them resolved that he would deny them, and then persists in the resolve already made without any serious thought. If the first person dces not believe in the Revelations immediately, it does not mean that he wants to remain an unbeliever, but because he wants to have greater satisfaction. Therefore, even if he is taking time to believe, it is just possible that another Revelation might enter his heart and he might believe sincerely with full satisfaction. As for the other person, he would never believe in any Revelation whatever, for he has already locked his heart up to every Revelation of Allah. In this state such people generally arc involved as arc characterised by the following three qualities: (1) They arc liars; therefore, the truth does not appeal to them; (2) they are wrongdoers; therefore, it is very hard for them to believe in a teaching or guidance that may impose moral restrictions on them; and (3) they arc involved in the conceit that they know everything, and that none can teach them anything; therefore, they do not regard as worthy of attention and consideration Allah's Revelations that are recited to them, and it is all the same for them whether they listen to there or not.(45:9) Whenever he comes to know anything of Our Signs, he makes them an object of jest.10 For such there awaits a humiliating chastisement.
*10 That is, "He dons not rest content with mocking any one particular Revelation, but mocks all the Revelations. For example, when he hears that a particular thing has been mentioned in the Qur'an, he does not take it in its straight-forward meaning, but first puts a crooked meaning on it in order to make it a subject of ridicule and mockery, then after making fun of it, says: "These arc strange things: one daily hears one or the other funny thing from them. "(45:10) Hell is behind them.11 Their worldly earnings shall not avail them, nor those whom they took as protectors instead of Allah.12 An awesome chastisement lies in store for them.
*11 The word wara' is used for every such thing as is hidden from man, whether it is before. him or behind him. Therefore, another translation can be: "They have Hell behind them." In the first case, the meaning would be: "They are unconsciously running on this way and have no idea that there is Hell in front of them in which they would fall ; " in the second case, it would mean: "They are engaged in this mischief of theirs, thoughtless of the Hereafter, and they have no idea that Hell is in pursuit of them."
*12 Here, the word wali (guardian) has been used in two meanings; (1) For those gods and goddesses and living and dead guides about whom the polytheists thought that anybody who was devoted to them, would escape Allah's punishment, whatever he might have done in the world, for their intercession will save them from Allah's wrath; and (2) for those chiefs and leaders and rulers whom the people took as their guides and patrons independent of God and followed them blindly and tried to please them even if they had to displease God. This verse warns all such people that when they will face Hell in consequence of this way of lift, neither of the two kinds of the guardians will come forward to save them from it. (For further explanation, see E. N . 6 of Surah Ash- Shura).(45:11) This (Qur'an) is the true guidance. Those who deny the Signs of their Lord shall suffer the torment of a woeful scourge.