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 Surah An-Nisa 4:77-87 [11/24]
  
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أَلَمْ تَرَHave you not seen
إِلَى[towards]
ٱلَّذِينَthose who
قِيلَ(when) it was said
لَهُمْto them,
كُفُّوٓاْ`Restrain
أَيْدِيَكُمْyour hands
وَأَقِيمُواْand establish
ٱلصَّلَوٲةَthe prayer
وَءَاتُواْand give
ٱلزَّكَوٲةَthe zakah?`
فَلَمَّاThen when
كُتِبَwas ordained
عَلَيْهِمُon them
ٱلْقِتَالُthe fighting,
إِذَاthen
فَرِيقٌa group
مِّنْهُمْof them
يَخْشَوْنَ[they] fear
ٱلنَّاسَthe people
كَخَشْيَةِas (they) fear
ٱللَّهِAllah
أَوْor
أَشَدَّmore intense
خَشْيَةً‌ۚfear,
وَقَالُواْand they said,
رَبَّنَا`Our Lord
لِمَwhy
كَتَبْتَhave You ordained
عَلَيْنَاupon us
ٱلْقِتَالَ[the] fighting?
لَوْلَآWhy not
أَخَّرْتَنَآYou postpone (it for) us
إِلَىٰٓto
أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ‌ۗa near term.`
قُلْSay,
مَتَـٰعُ`Enjoyment
ٱلدُّنْيَا(of) the world
قَلِيلٌ(is) little
وَٱلْأَخِرَةُand the Hereafter
خَيْرٌ(is) better
لِّمَنِfor whoever
ٱتَّقَىٰfears (Allah)
وَلَاand not
تُظْلَمُونَyou will be wronged
فَتِيلاً(even as much as) a hair on a date-seed.
﴿٧٧﴾
أَيْنَمَا`Wherever
تَكُونُواْyou be
يُدْرِككُّمُwill overtake you
ٱلْمَوْتُ[the] death
وَلَوْeven if
كُنتُمْyou are
فِىin
بُرُوجٍtowers
مُّشَيَّدَةٍ‌ۗlofty.
وَإِنAnd if
تُصِبْهُمْbefalls them
حَسَنَةٌany good
يَقُولُواْthey say,
هَـٰذِهِۦ`This
مِنْ عِندِ(is) from
ٱللَّهِ‌ۖAllah.`
وَإِنAnd if
تُصِبْهُمْbefalls them
سَيِّئَةٌany evil
يَقُولُواْthey say,
هَـٰذِهِۦ`This
مِنْ(is) from
عِندِكَ‌ۚyou.`
قُلْSay,
كُلٌّ`All
مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ(is) from Allah.`
فَمَالِSo what (is wrong)
هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ(with) these
ٱلْقَوْمِ[the] people,
لَا يَكَادُونَthey do not seem
يَفْقَهُونَ(to) understand
حَدِيثًاany statement.
﴿٧٨﴾
مَّآWhat(ever)
أَصَابَكَbefalls you
مِنْof
حَسَنَةٍ(the) good
فَمِنَ(is) from
ٱللَّهِ‌ۖAllah,
وَمَآand whatever
أَصَابَكَbefalls you
مِنof
سَيِّئَةٍ(the) evil
فَمِنis) from
نَّفْسِكَ‌ۚyourself.
وَأَرْسَلْنَـٰكَAnd We have sent you
لِلنَّاسِfor the people
رَسُولاً‌ۚ(as) a Messenger,
وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِand Allah is sufficient
شَهِيدًا(as) a Witness.
﴿٧٩﴾
مَّن(He) who
يُطِعِobeys
ٱلرَّسُولَthe Messenger
فَقَدْthen surely
أَطَاعَhe obeyed
ٱللَّهَ‌ۖAllah,
وَمَنand whoever
تَوَلَّىٰturns away -
فَمَآthen not
أَرْسَلْنَـٰكَWe (have) sent you
عَلَيْهِمْover them
حَفِيظًا(as) a guardian.
﴿٨٠﴾
وَيَقُولُونَAnd they say,
طَاعَةٌ`(We pledge) obedience.`
فَإِذَاThen when
بَرَزُواْthey leave
مِنْ عِندِكَ[from] you,
بَيَّتَplan by night
طَآئِفَةٌa group
مِّنْهُمْof them
غَيْرَother than
ٱلَّذِىthat which
تَقُولُ‌ۖyou say.
وَٱللَّهُBut Allah
يَكْتُبُrecords
مَاwhat
يُبَيِّتُونَ‌ۖthey plan by night.
فَأَعْرِضْSo turn (away)
عَنْهُمْfrom them
وَتَوَكَّلْand put (your) trust
عَلَىin
ٱللَّهِ‌ۚAllah.
وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِAnd sufficient is Allah
وَكِيلاً(as) a Trustee.
﴿٨١﴾
أَفَلَاThen (do) not
يَتَدَبَّرُونَthey ponder
ٱلْقُرْءَانَ‌ۚ(on) the Quran?
وَلَوْAnd if
كَانَit had (been)
مِنْ عِندِfrom
غَيْرِother than
ٱللَّهِAllah,
لَوَجَدُواْsurely they (would have) found
فِيهِin it
ٱخْتِلَـٰفًا كَثِيرًاmuch contradiction.
﴿٨٢﴾
وَإِذَاAnd when
جَآءَهُمْcomes to them
أَمْرٌa matter
مِّنَof
ٱلْأَمْنِthe security
أَوِor
ٱلْخَوْفِ[the] fear
أَذَاعُواْthey spread
بِهِۦ‌ۖ[with] it.
وَلَوْBut if
رَدُّوهُthey (had) referred it
إِلَىto
ٱلرَّسُولِthe Messenger
وَإِلَىٰٓand to
أُوْلِى ٱلْأَمْرِthose having authority
مِنْهُمْamong them,
لَعَلِمَهُsurely would have known it
ٱلَّذِينَthose who
يَسْتَنۢبِطُونَهُۥdraw correct conclusion (from) it
مِنْهُمْ‌ۗamong them.
وَلَوْلَاAnd if not
فَضْلُ(had been the) bounty
ٱللَّهِ(of) Allah
عَلَيْكُمْon you
وَرَحْمَتُهُۥand His Mercy,
لَٱتَّبَعْتُمُsurely you (would have) followed
ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنَthe Shaitaan
إِلَّاexcept
قَلِيلاًa few.
﴿٨٣﴾
فَقَـٰتِلْSo fight
فِىin
سَبِيلِ(the) way
ٱللَّهِ(of) Allah;
لَا تُكَلَّفُyou are not responsible
إِلَّاexcept
نَفْسَكَ‌ۚ(for) yourself.
وَحَرِّضِAnd encourage
ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ‌ۖthe believers,
عَسَىperhaps
ٱللَّهُ أَنthat Allah
يَكُفَّwill restrain
بَأْسَ(the) might
ٱلَّذِينَ(of) those who
كَفَرُواْ‌ۚdisbelieved.
وَٱللَّهُAnd Allah
أَشَدُّ(is) Stronger
بَأْسًا(in) Might
وَأَشَدُّand Stronger
تَنكِيلاً(in) punishment.
﴿٨٤﴾
مَّنWhoever
يَشْفَعْintercedes -
شَفَـٰعَةًan intercession
حَسَنَةًgood,
يَكُنwill have
لَّهُۥfor him
نَصِيبٌa share
مِّنْهَا‌ۖof it;
وَمَنand whoever
يَشْفَعْintercedes -
شَفَـٰعَةًan intercession
سَيِّئَةًevil,
يَكُنwill have
لَّهُۥfor him
كِفْلٌa portion
مِّنْهَا‌ۗof it.
وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُAnd Allah
عَلَىٰ(is) on
كُلِّevery
شَىْءٍthing
مُّقِيتًاa Keeper.
﴿٨٥﴾
وَإِذَاAnd when
حُيِّيتُمyou are greeted
بِتَحِيَّةٍwith a greeting,
فَحَيُّواْthen greet
بِأَحْسَنَwith better
مِنْهَآthan it
أَوْor
رُدُّوهَآ‌ۗreturn it.
إِنَّIndeed,
ٱللَّهَAllah
كَانَis
عَلَىٰof
كُلِّevery
شَىْءٍthing
حَسِيبًاan Accountant.
﴿٨٦﴾
ٱللَّهُAllah -
لَآ(there is) no
إِلَـٰهَgod
إِلَّاexcept
هُوَ‌ۚHim,
لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْsurely He will gather you
إِلَىٰto
يَوْمِ(the) Day
ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ(of) Resurrection -
لَاno
رَيْبَdoubt
فِيهِ‌ۗabout it.
وَمَنْAnd who
أَصْدَقُ(is) more truthful
مِنَthan
ٱللَّهِAllah
حَدِيثًا(in) statement.
﴿٨٧﴾


اَلَمۡ تَرَ اِلَى الَّذِيۡنَ قِيۡلَ لَهُمۡ كُفُّوۡۤا اَيۡدِيَكُمۡ وَاَقِيۡمُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَاٰ تُوا الزَّكٰوةَ ۚ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيۡهِمُ الۡقِتَالُ اِذَا فَرِيۡقٌ مِّنۡهُمۡ يَخۡشَوۡنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشۡيَةِ اللّٰهِ اَوۡ اَشَدَّ خَشۡيَةً​ ۚ وَقَالُوۡا رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبۡتَ عَلَيۡنَا الۡقِتَالَ ۚ لَوۡلَاۤ اَخَّرۡتَنَاۤ اِلٰٓى اَجَلٍ قَرِيۡبٍ​ ؕ قُلۡ مَتَاعُ الدُّنۡيَا قَلِيۡلٌ​ ۚ وَالۡاٰخِرَةُ خَيۡرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقٰى وَلَا تُظۡلَمُوۡنَ فَتِيۡلًا‏  اَيۡنَ مَا تَكُوۡنُوۡا يُدۡرِكْكُّمُ الۡمَوۡتُ وَلَوۡ كُنۡتُمۡ فِىۡ بُرُوۡجٍ مُّشَيَّدَةٍ​ ؕ وَاِنۡ تُصِبۡهُمۡ حَسَنَةٌ يَّقُوۡلُوۡا هٰذِهٖ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰهِ​ ۚ وَاِنۡ تُصِبۡهُمۡ سَيِّئَةٌ يَّقُوۡلُوۡا هٰذِهٖ مِنۡ عِنۡدِكَ​ ؕ قُلۡ كُلٌّ مِّنۡ عِنۡدِ اللّٰهِ​ ؕ فَمَالِ ھٰٓؤُلَۤاءِ الۡقَوۡمِ لَا يَكَادُوۡنَ يَفۡقَهُوۡنَ حَدِيۡثًا‏   مَاۤ اَصَابَكَ مِنۡ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللّٰهِ​ وَمَاۤ اَصَابَكَ مِنۡ سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِنۡ نَّـفۡسِكَ​ ؕ وَاَرۡسَلۡنٰكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُوۡلًا​ ؕ وَكَفٰى بِاللّٰهِ شَهِيۡدًا‏   مَنۡ يُّطِعِ الرَّسُوۡلَ فَقَدۡ اَطَاعَ اللّٰهَ ​ۚ وَمَنۡ تَوَلّٰى فَمَاۤ اَرۡسَلۡنٰكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَفِيۡظًا ؕ‏  وَيَقُوۡلُوۡنَ طَاعَةٌ فَاِذَا بَرَزُوۡا مِنۡ عِنۡدِكَ بَيَّتَ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنۡهُمۡ غَيۡرَ الَّذِىۡ تَقُوۡلُ​ ؕ وَاللّٰهُ يَكۡتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُوۡنَ​ ۚ فَاَعۡرِضۡ عَنۡهُمۡ وَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى اللّٰهِ​ ؕ وَكَفٰى بِاللّٰهِ وَكِيۡلًا‏  اَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُوۡنَ الۡقُرۡاٰنَ​ؕ وَلَوۡ كَانَ مِنۡ عِنۡدِ غَيۡرِ اللّٰهِ لَوَجَدُوۡا فِيۡهِ اخۡتِلَافًا كَثِيۡرًا‏  وَاِذَا جَآءَهُمۡ اَمۡرٌ مِّنَ الۡاَمۡنِ اَوِ الۡخَـوۡفِ اَذَاعُوۡا بِهٖ​ ۚ وَلَوۡ رَدُّوۡهُ اِلَى الرَّسُوۡلِ وَاِلٰٓى اُولِى الۡاَمۡرِ مِنۡهُمۡ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِيۡنَ يَسۡتَنۡۢبِطُوۡنَهٗ مِنۡهُمۡ​ؕ وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ اللّٰهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَرَحۡمَتُهٗ لَاتَّبَعۡتُمُ الشَّيۡطٰنَ اِلَّا قَلِيۡلًا‏  فَقَاتِلۡ فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ​ ۚ لَا تُكَلَّفُ اِلَّا نَـفۡسَكَ​ وَحَرِّضِ الۡمُؤۡمِنِيۡنَ​ ۚ عَسَے اللّٰهُ اَنۡ يَّكُفَّ بَاۡسَ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا​ ؕ وَاللّٰهُ اَشَدُّ بَاۡسًا وَّاَشَدُّ تَـنۡكِيۡلًا‏  مَنۡ يَّشۡفَعۡ شَفَاعَةً حَسَنَةً يَّكُنۡ لَّهٗ نَصِيۡبٌ مِّنۡهَا​ ۚ وَمَنۡ يَّشۡفَعۡ شَفَاعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَّكُنۡ لَّهٗ كِفۡلٌ مِّنۡهَا​ ؕ وَكَانَ اللّٰهُ عَلٰى كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ مُّقِيۡتًا‏  وَاِذَا حُيِّيۡتُمۡ بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوۡا بِاَحۡسَنَ مِنۡهَاۤ اَوۡ رُدُّوۡهَا​ ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ كَانَ عَلٰى كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ حَسِيۡبًا‏  اللّٰهُ لَاۤ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ​ؕ لَيَجۡمَعَنَّكُمۡ اِلٰى يَوۡمِ الۡقِيٰمَةِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيۡهِ​ؕ وَمَنۡ اَصۡدَقُ مِنَ اللّٰهِ حَدِيۡثًا‏ 
(4:77) Have you not seen those who were told: 'Restrain you hands, and establish the Prayer, and pay the Zakah'? But when fighting was enjoined upon them some of them feared men as one should fear Allah, or even more,107 and said: 'Our Lord, why have You ordained fighting for us? Why did You not grant us a little more respite?' Say to them: 'There is little enjoyment in this world. The World to Come is much better for the God-fearing. And you shall not be wronged even to the extent of the husk of a date-stone.108 (4:78) Wherever you might be, death will overtake you even though you be in massive towers. And when some good happens to them, they say: 'This is from Allah'; whereas when some misfortune befalls them, they say: 'This is because of you'.109 Say: 'All is from Allah.' What has happened to this people that they seem to understand nothing? (4:79) Whatever good happens to you is from Allah; and whatever misfortune smites you is because of your own action. We have sent you to mankind (O Muhammad!) as a Messenger, and Allah is sufficient as a witness. (4:80) He who obeys the Messenger thereby obeys Allah; as for he who turns away, We have not sent you as a keeper over them!110 (4:81) They say (in your presence): 'We obey', but when they leave your presence a party of them meets by night to plan against what you have said. Allah takes note of all their plots. So, let them alone, and put your trust in Allah. Allah is sufficient as a guardian. (4:82) Do they not ponder about the Qur'an? Had it been from any other than Allah, they would surely have found in it much inconsistency.111 (4:83) Whenever they come upon any news bearing upon either security or causing consternation they go about spreading it, whereas if they were to convey it to either the Messenger or to those from among them who are entrusted with authority, it would come to the knowledge of those who are competent to investigate it.112 But for Allah's bounty and mercy upon you, (weak as you were) all but a few of you would surely have followed Satan. (4:84) (So, O Messenger!) Fight in the way of Allah -since you are responsible for none except yourself - and rouse the believers to fight, for Allah may well curb the might of the unbelievers. Indeed Allah is strongest in power and most terrible in chastisement. (4:85) He who intercedes in a good cause shall share in its good result, and he who intercedes in an evil cause shall share in its burden.113 Allah watches over everything. (4:86) When you are greeted with a salutation then return it with a better one, or at least the same.114 Surely Allah takes good count of everything. (4:87) There is no god but Allah. He will certainly gather you all together on the Day of Resurrection - the Day regarding which there can be no doubt. Whose word can be truer than Allah's?115

107. This verse .can be interpreted in three ways, and each meaning is equally valid: First, that those who now shirked to fight in the cause of God were themselves initially eager to fight. They often approached the Prophet (peace be on him), saying that they were being wronged, beaten, persecuted and abused, that' their patience was exhausted, and that they wanted permission to fight. They had then been told to be patient and continue to purify their souls by observing Prayers and dispensing Zakah. At that time they had felt disconcerted by this counsel of patience. Later on, some of those very same people were to tremble at the first sight of the enemy and the dangers of warfare.

Second, that they remained highly 'religious' as long as they were asked merely to pray and pay Zakah, which entailed no risk to their lives. But as soon as that phase was over and they were asked to expose themselves to danger, they began to shiver with fear.

Third, that in the former times the same people had unsheathed their swords for trivial causes. They had fought for loot and plunder, and engaged in feuds motivated by animal impulses, so much so that feuding had almost become their national pastime. At that time they had been told to abstain from bloodshed and to reform themselves by observing Prayers and dispensing Zakah. When, later on, the same people were told that the time had come for them to fight in the cause of God, those who had shown themselves to be lions while fighting for their own selfish causes turned out to be as meek as lambs. The strong hands which had wielded the sword so firmly, and had used it so fiercely for the sake of either personal or tribal honour, or for Satan's sake, became almost paralysed.

Each of these three meanings applies to a different kind of person, but the actual words of the verse seem to apply equally to all who shirked fighting in the cause of God.

108. Were they to serve the religion of God and spend their energy in that cause, they would surely be rewarded by Him.

109. When such people encounter success and victory, they attribute it to the grace of God. They allow themselves to forget that this grace came to them through no one but the Prophet (peace be on him). When they are either beaten or face setbacks because of their own faults and weaknesses they gratuitously exonerate themselves and place the blame squarely on the Prophet (peace be on him).

110. Such people are responsible for their own conduct. It is they rather than the Prophet (peace be on him) who will be censured. The task entrusted to the Prophet (peace be on him) was merely to communicate to them the ordinances and directives of God and he acquitted himself of it very well. It was not his duty to compel them to follow the right way, so that if they failed to follow the teachings communicated to them by the Prophet (peace be on him) the responsibility was entirely theirs. The Prophet (peace be on him) would not be questioned as to why they disobeyed.

111. The main reason for the attitude of the hypocrites and lukewarm believers was their lack of conviction that the Qur'an came from God. They did not believe that the Prophet (peace be on him) had received the messages and directives that he preached from God Himself. Hence, when they are censured for their hypocritical conduct, they are told that they do not reflect upon the Qur'an. For the Qur'an itself is a strong, persuasive testimony to its divine origin. It is inconceivable that any human being should compose discourses on different subjects under different circumstances and on different occasions, and that the collection of those discourses should then grow into a coherent, homogeneous and integrated work, no component of which is discordant with the others. It is also inconceivable that such a work would be permeated through and through with a uniform outlook and attitude, a work reflecting a remarkable consistency in the mood and spirit of its Author, and a work too mature ever to need revision.

112. This was a period of turbulence and upheaval and rumour was rife. Occasionally, baseless and exaggerated reports circulated and seized the whole of Madina and its outlying areas with alarm and consternation. At other times some cunning enemy tried to conceal the dangers threatening the Muslims by spreading soothing reports. A specially keen interest in rumours was taken by those who simply relished anything out of the ordinary, and who did not consider this life-and-death struggle between Islam and Ignorance to be a matter of crucial importance, and who were not aware of the far-reaching consequences of rumour-mongering. As soon as they heard something, they ran about spreading it everywhere. This rebuke is addressed to such people. They are warned against spreading rumours and are directed to convey every report they receive to responsible quarters.

113. It is all a matter of choice and luck. One has the opportunity to struggle for the cause of God, and to urge others to strive for it in order to raise the banner of the Truth and be rewarded by God for so doing. Likewise, one also has the opportunity to expend one's energy trying to create misunderstanding among God's creatures and to demoralize people in their struggle for His cause thus incurring His chastisement.

114. At that time the relations between the Muslims and non-Muslims were strained to the limit. It was feared, therefore, that the Muslims might feel inclined to treat the latter discourteously. They are accordingly asked to pay at least as much respect and consideration to others as is paid to them - and preferably more. Good manners and courtesy are to be matched by the Muslims. In fact, the mission entrusted to the Muslims requires them to excel others in this respect. Harshness, irritability and bitterness are not becoming in a people whose main function is to preach a message and invite people to it; a people committed to guiding mankind towards righteousness. While harshness and bitterness may at best satisfy one's injured vanity, they are positively harmful to the cause that one seeks to promote.'

115.Whatever the unbelievers, polytheists and atheists may do does not impair God's godhead. That God is the One and Absolute Lord of all is a fact which none can alter. And a Day will come when He will gather together all human beings and will make them see the consequences of their deeds, and no one will be in a position to escape His retribution. God therefore does not require His good creatures to maltreat, on His behalf, those who are lost in error. This is the link between the present verse and the one preceding it. The same verse also concludes the theme running through the last twenty verses or so (see verses 71 ff). The present verse outlines that a man can follow whichever course he deems fit, and expend his energy in any direction he likes, but ultimately all men will have to stand before the One True God for His judgement and will see the consequences of their deeds.