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 Surah Al-Baqarah 2:189-196 [24/40]
  
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۞ يَسْــَٔلُونَكَThey ask you
عَنِabout
ٱلْأَهِلَّةِ‌ۖthe new moons.
قُلْSay,
هِىَ`They
مَوَٲقِيتُ(are) indicators of periods
لِلنَّاسِfor the people,
وَٱلْحَجِّ‌ۗand (for) the Hajj.`
وَلَيْسَAnd it is not
ٱلْبِرُّ[the] righteousness
بِأَنthat
تَأْتُواْyou come
ٱلْبُيُوتَ(to) the houses
مِنfrom
ظُهُورِهَاtheir backs,
وَلَـٰكِنَّ[and] but
ٱلْبِرَّ[the] righteous
مَنِ(is one) who
ٱتَّقَىٰ‌ۗfears (Allah).
وَأْتُواْAnd come
ٱلْبُيُوتَ(to) the houses
مِنْfrom
أَبْوَٲبِهَا‌ۚtheir doors.
وَٱتَّقُواْAnd fear
ٱللَّهَAllah
لَعَلَّكُمْso that you may
تُفْلِحُونَ(be) successful.
﴿١٨٩﴾
وَقَـٰتِلُواْAnd fight
فِىin
سَبِيلِ(the) way
ٱللَّهِ(of) Allah
ٱلَّذِينَthose who
يُقَـٰتِلُونَكُمْfight you
وَلَا تَعْتَدُوٓاْ‌ۚand (do) not transgress.
إِنَّIndeed,
ٱللَّهَAllah
لَا يُحِبُّ(does) not like
ٱلْمُعْتَدِينَthe transgressors.
﴿١٩٠﴾
وَٱقْتُلُوهُمْAnd kill them
حَيْثُwherever
ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْyou find them,
وَأَخْرِجُوهُمand drive them out
مِّنْfrom
حَيْثُwherever
أَخْرَجُوكُمْ‌ۚthey drove you out,
وَٱلْفِتْنَةُand [the] oppression
أَشَدُّ(is) worse
مِنَthan
ٱلْقَتْلِ‌ۚ[the] killing.
وَلَاAnd (do) not
تُقَـٰتِلُوهُمْfight them
عِندَnear
ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِAl-Masjid Al-Haraam
حَتَّىٰuntil
يُقَـٰتِلُوكُمْthey fight you
فِيهِ‌ۖin it.
فَإِنThen if
قَـٰتَلُوكُمْthey fight you,
فَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ‌ۗthen kill them.
كَذَٲلِكَSuch
جَزَآءُ(is the) reward
ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ(of) the disbelievers.
﴿١٩١﴾
فَإِنِThen if
ٱنتَهَوْاْthey cease,
فَإِنَّthen indeed,
ٱللَّهَAllah
غَفُورٌ(is) Oft-Forgiving,
رَّحِيمٌMost Merciful.
﴿١٩٢﴾
وَقَـٰتِلُوهُمْAnd fight (against) them
حَتَّىٰuntil
لَا تَكُونَ(there) is no
فِتْنَةٌoppression,
وَيَكُونَand becomes
ٱلدِّينُthe religion
لِلَّهِ‌ۖfor Allah
فَإِنِThen if
ٱنتَهَوْاْthey cease
فَلَاthen (let there be) no
عُدْوَٲنَhostility
إِلَّاexcept
عَلَىagainst
ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَthe oppressors.
﴿١٩٣﴾
ٱلشَّهْرُThe month
ٱلْحَرَامُ[the] sacred
بِٱلشَّهْرِ(is) for the month
ٱلْحَرَامِ[the] sacred,
وَٱلْحُرُمَـٰتُand for all the violations
قِصَاصٌ‌ۚ(is) legal retribution.
فَمَنِThen whoever
ٱعْتَدَىٰtransgressed
عَلَيْكُمْupon you
فَٱعْتَدُواْthen you transgress
عَلَيْهِon him
بِمِثْلِin (the) same manner
مَا(as)
ٱعْتَدَىٰhe transgressed
عَلَيْكُمْ‌ۚupon you.
وَٱتَّقُواْAnd fear
ٱللَّهَAllah
وَٱعْلَمُوٓاْand know
أَنَّthat
ٱللَّهَAllah
مَعَ(is) with
ٱلْمُتَّقِينَthose who fear (Him).
﴿١٩٤﴾
وَأَنفِقُواْAnd spend
فِىin
سَبِيلِ(the) way
ٱللَّهِ(of) Allah
وَلَاand (do) not
تُلْقُواْthrow (yourselves)
بِأَيْدِيكُمْ[with your hands]
إِلَىinto
ٱلتَّهْلُكَةِ‌ۛ[the] destruction.
وَأَحْسِنُوٓاْ‌ۛAnd do good;
إِنَّindeed,
ٱللَّهَAllah
يُحِبُّloves
ٱلْمُحْسِنِينَthe good-doers.
﴿١٩٥﴾
وَأَتِمُّواْAnd complete
ٱلْحَجَّthe Hajj
وَٱلْعُمْرَةَand the Umrah
لِلَّهِ‌ۚfor Allah.
فَإِنْAnd if
أُحْصِرْتُمْyou are held back
فَمَاthen (offer) whatever
ٱسْتَيْسَرَ(can be) obtained with ease
مِنَof
ٱلْهَدْىِ‌ۖthe sacrificial animal.
وَلَاAnd (do) not
تَحْلِقُواْshave
رُءُوسَكُمْyour heads
حَتَّىٰuntil
يَبْلُغَreaches
ٱلْهَدْىُthe sacrificial animal
مَحِلَّهُۥ‌ۚ(to) its destination.
فَمَنThen whoever
كَانَis
مِنكُمamong you
مَّرِيضًاill
أَوْor
بِهِۦٓhe (has)
أَذًىan ailment
مِّنof
رَّأْسِهِۦhis head
فَفِدْيَةٌthen a ransom
مِّنof
صِيَامٍfasting
أَوْor
صَدَقَةٍcharity
أَوْor
نُسُكٍ‌ۚsacrifice.
فَإِذَآThen when
أَمِنتُمْyou are secure
فَمَنthen whoever
تَمَتَّعَtook advantage
بِٱلْعُمْرَةِof the Umrah
إِلَىfollowed
ٱلْحَجِّ(by) the Hajj,
فَمَاthen (offer) whatever
ٱسْتَيْسَرَ(can be) obtained with ease
مِنَof
ٱلْهَدْىِ‌ۚthe sacrificial animal.
فَمَنBut whoever
لَّمْ(can)not
يَجِدْfind -
فَصِيَامُthen a fast
ثَلَـٰثَةِ(of) three
أَيَّامٍdays
فِىduring
ٱلْحَجِّthe Hajj
وَسَبْعَةٍand seven (days)
إِذَاwhen
رَجَعْتُمْ‌ۗyou return.
تِلْكَThis
عَشَرَةٌ(is) ten (days)
كَامِلَةٌ‌ۗin all.
ذَٲلِكَThat
لِمَن(is) for (the one) whose,
لَّمْnot
يَكُنْis
أَهْلُهُۥhis family
حَاضِرِىpresent
ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ‌ۚ(near) Al-Masjid Al-Haraam.
وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَAnd fear Allah
وَٱعْلَمُوٓاْand know
أَنَّthat
ٱللَّهَAllah
شَدِيدُ(is) severe
ٱلْعِقَابِ(in) retribution.
﴿١٩٦﴾


يَسۡـئَلُوۡنَكَ عَنِ الۡاَهِلَّةِ ​ؕ قُلۡ هِىَ مَوَاقِيۡتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالۡحَجِّ ؕ وَلَيۡسَ الۡبِرُّ بِاَنۡ تَاۡتُوا الۡبُيُوۡتَ مِنۡ ظُهُوۡرِهَا وَلٰـكِنَّ الۡبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقٰى​ۚ وَاۡتُوا الۡبُيُوۡتَ مِنۡ اَبۡوَابِهَا وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ لَعَلَّکُمۡ تُفۡلِحُوۡنَ‏‏‏  وَقَاتِلُوۡا فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ الَّذِيۡنَ يُقَاتِلُوۡنَكُمۡ وَلَا تَعۡتَدُوۡا ؕ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الۡمُعۡتَدِيۡنَ‏  وَاقۡتُلُوۡهُمۡ حَيۡثُ ثَقِفۡتُمُوۡهُمۡ وَاَخۡرِجُوۡهُمۡ مِّنۡ حَيۡثُ اَخۡرَجُوۡكُمۡ​ وَالۡفِتۡنَةُ اَشَدُّ مِنَ الۡقَتۡلِۚ وَلَا تُقٰتِلُوۡهُمۡ عِنۡدَ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَـرَامِ حَتّٰى يُقٰتِلُوۡكُمۡ فِيۡهِ​ۚ فَاِنۡ قٰتَلُوۡكُمۡ فَاقۡتُلُوۡهُمۡؕ كَذٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ الۡكٰفِرِيۡنَ‏  فَاِنِ انۡـتَهَوۡا فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ غَفُوۡرٌ رَّحِيۡمٌ‏  وَقٰتِلُوۡهُمۡ حَتّٰى لَا تَكُوۡنَ فِتۡنَةٌ وَّيَكُوۡنَ الدِّيۡنُ لِلّٰهِ​ؕ فَاِنِ انتَهَوۡا فَلَا عُدۡوَانَ اِلَّا عَلَى الظّٰلِمِيۡنَ‏  اَلشَّهۡرُ الۡحَـرَامُ بِالشَّهۡرِ الۡحَـرَامِ وَالۡحُرُمٰتُ قِصَاصٌ​ؕ فَمَنِ اعۡتَدٰى عَلَيۡكُمۡ فَاعۡتَدُوۡا عَلَيۡهِ بِمِثۡلِ مَا اعۡتَدٰى عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ وَاعۡلَمُوۡٓا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَ الۡمُتَّقِيۡنَ‏  وَاَنۡفِقُوۡا فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ وَلَا تُلۡقُوۡا بِاَيۡدِيۡكُمۡ اِلَى التَّهۡلُكَةِ ۖ  ۛۚ وَاَحۡسِنُوۡا  ۛۚ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يُحِبُّ الۡمُحۡسِنِيۡنَ‏  وَاَتِمُّوا الۡحَجَّ وَالۡعُمۡرَةَ لِلّٰهِؕ فَاِنۡ اُحۡصِرۡتُمۡ فَمَا اسۡتَيۡسَرَ مِنَ الۡهَدۡىِ​ۚ وَلَا تَحۡلِقُوۡا رُءُوۡسَكُمۡ حَتّٰى يَبۡلُغَ الۡهَدۡىُ مَحِلَّهٗ ؕ فَمَنۡ كَانَ مِنۡكُمۡ مَّرِيۡضًا اَوۡ بِهٖۤ اَذًى مِّنۡ رَّاۡسِهٖ فَفِدۡيَةٌ مِّنۡ صِيَامٍ اَوۡ صَدَقَةٍ اَوۡ نُسُكٍۚ فَاِذَآ اَمِنۡتُمۡ فَمَنۡ تَمَتَّعَ بِالۡعُمۡرَةِ اِلَى الۡحَجِّ فَمَا اسۡتَيۡسَرَ مِنَ الۡهَدۡىِ​ۚ فَمَنۡ لَّمۡ يَجِدۡ فَصِيَامُ ثَلٰثَةِ اَيَّامٍ فِى الۡحَجِّ وَسَبۡعَةٍ اِذَا رَجَعۡتُمۡؕ تِلۡكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ  ؕ ذٰ لِكَ لِمَنۡ لَّمۡ يَكُنۡ اَهۡلُهٗ حَاضِرِىۡ الۡمَسۡجِدِ الۡحَـرَامِ​ؕ وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ وَاعۡلَمُوۡٓا اَنَّ اللّٰهَ شَدِيۡدُ الۡعِقَابِ‏ 
(2:189) People question you concerning the phases of the moon. Say: “They are signs to determine time for the sake of people and for the Pilgrimage.”198 Also tell them: “True righteousness is not that you enter your houses from the back; righteousness lies in fearing Allah. So, enter your houses by their doors, and fear Allah that you might attain true success.”199 (2:190) Fight in the way of Allah200 against those who fight against you but do not transgress,201 for Allah does not love transgressors. (2:191) Kill them whenever you confront them and drive them out from where they drove you out. (For though killing is sinful) wrongful persecution is even worse than killing.202 Do not fight against them near the Holy Mosque unless they fight against you; but if they fight against you kill them, for that is the reward of such unbelievers. (2:192) Then if they desist, know well that Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Most Compassionate.203 (2:193) Keep on fighting against them until mischief ends and the way prescribed by Allah prevails.204 But if they desist, then know that hostility is directed only against the wrong-doers.205 (2:194) The sacred month for the sacred month; sanctities should be respected alike (by all concerned). Thus, if someone has attacked you, attack him just as he attacked you, and fear Allah and remain conscious that Allah is with those who guard against violating the bounds set by Him.206 (2:195) Spend in the Way of Allah and do not cast yourselves into destruction with your own hands;207 do good, for Allah loves those who do good.208 (2:196) Complete Hajj and 'Umrah for Allah. And if you are prevented from doing so, then make the offering which is available to you,209 and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its appointed place.210

If any of you should have to shave your head before that because of illness, or injury to the head, then you should make redemption by fasting, or almsgiving, or ritual sacrifice.211 And when you are secure,212 then he who avails of 'Umrah before the time of Hajj shall give the offering he can afford; and if he cannot afford the offering, he shall fast for three days during Hajj and for seven days after he returns home; that is, ten days in all. This privilege is for those whose families do not live near the Holy Mosque.213 Guard against violating these ordinances of Allah and be mindful that Allah is severe in chastisement.

198. The waxing and waning of the moon has attracted men's attentions throughout the ages and all kinds of fanciful ideas, superstitions and rituals have been, and are still today, associated with it. The moon was considered the basis of good and bad omens. Certain dates were considered auspicious and others inauspicious for starting journeys, for beginning new tasks, for weddings and so on on the ground that the rising and setting of the moon, its waxing and waning and its eclipse affect human destiny. The Arabs too had their share of such superstitions. It was therefore natural that enquiries regarding such matters should be addressed to the Prophet.

In response, God says that the waxing and waning of the moon is nothing more than a physical phenomenon. By its appearance in the firmament the moon enables man to divide his year and it can thus be considered nature's own calendar. Particular reference is made to Hajj because it occupied the position of highest importance in the religious, cultural and economic life of the Arabs. Four months of the year were specified since they were the months of major and minor Pilgrimage (Hajj and 'Umrah). During these months there was to be no warfare and the routes were completely safe for travelling. Thanks to the peace and tranquillity thus established, trade and commerce prospered.

199. One superstitious custom of the Arabs was that once they entered the state of consecration for Pilgrimage they did not enter their houses by the door. Instead, they either leapt over the walls from the rear or climbed through windows which they had specially erected for that purpose. On returning from journeys, too, they entered their houses from the rear. In this verse this superstitious custom is denounced, as are all superstitious customs; it is pointed out that the essence of moral excellence consists of fearing God and abstaining from disobeying His commands. Those meaningless customs by which people felt bound, out of blind adherence to the traditions of their forefathers, and which had no effect at all on man's ultimate destiny, had nothing to do with moral excellence.

200. The believers are asked to fight those who hindered their efforts in the cause of God, and acted with hostility towards them merely because they sought to fashion human life according to the revealed guidance of God. Earlier, when they were weak and scattered, the Muslims were asked merely to preach and be patient with the wrongful repression meted out to them by their opponents. However, now that a small city state had been established in Madina they were commanded for the first time to unsheathe their swords against those who had resorted to armed hostility against their movement of reform. It was some time after this injunction that the Battle of Badr took place, to be followed by several other battles.

201. The believers are told that material interests should not be the motivation for their fighting, that they should not take up arms against those who were not in opposition to the true faith, that they should not resort to unscrupulous methods or to the indiscriminate killing and pillage which characterized the wars of the pre-Islamic era, the Age of Ignorance. The excesses alluded to in this verse are acts such as taking up arms against women and children, the old and the injured, mutilation of the dead bodies of the enemy, uncalled-for devastation through the destruction of fields and livestock, and other similar acts of injustice and brutality. In the Hadith all these acts have been prohibited. The real intent of the verse is to stress that force should be used only when its use is unavoidable, and only to the extent that is absolutely necessary.

202. Here the word fitnah is used in the sense of 'persecution'. It refers to a situation whereby either a person or a group is subjected to harassment and intimidation for having accepted, as true, a set of ideas contrary to those currently held, and for striving to effect reforms in the existing order of society by preaching what is good and condemning what is wrong. Such a situation must be changed, if need be, by the force of arms.

Bloodshed is bad, but when one group of people imposes its ideology and forcibly prevents others from accepting the truth, then it becomes guilty of an even more serious crime. In such circumstances, it is perfectly legitimate to remove that oppressive group by the force of arms.

203. God, in whom the believers have faith, is forgiving and ready to pardon even the worst criminals and sinners after they have renounced their arrogant defiance towards Him. It is suggested that this attribute of God should be reflected in the behaviour of the believers as well. As the saying goes: 'Mould your morals according to the attributes of God.' Hence, Whenever the believers have to resort to armed conflict, they should do so not for the sake of quenching their thirst for vengeance but in the cause of God's religion. Their conflict with any group should last only as long as that group resists the cause of God. As soon as it gives up this resistance hostility should cease.

204. Here the term fitnah is used in a different sense from the one in which it was used above see( verse 191). It is evident from the context that fitnah refers here to the state of affairs wherein the object of obedience is someone other than God. Hence the purpose of a believer's fighting is that this fitnah should cease and obedience should be consecrated to God alone.

An investigation of the usages of the word din (which occurs in this verse) reveals that the core of its meaning is obedience. In its technical usage, the word refers to that system of life which arises as a result of a person recognizing someone as his Lord and Sovereign and committing himself to following his commands and ordinances. This explanation of the word din makes it quite clear that when some human beings establish their godhead and absolute dominance over others, this state of affairs is one of fitnah. Islam seeks to put an end to this and replace it by a state of affairs in which people live in obedience to the laws of God alone.

205. What is meant here by 'desisting' is not the abandonment of unbelief and polytheism on the part of the unbelievers but rather their desistance from active hostility to the religion enjoined by God. The unbeliever, the polytheist, the atheist, has each been, empowered to hold on to his beliefs and to worship who and whatever he wishes. In order to deliver these people from their error, Muslims are required to counsel them and tell them where their good lies. But Muslims ought not to try to achieve this purpose by resorting to force. At the same time, these misguided people have no right to either enforce the false laws of their own contriving instead of the laws of God or to drive the people of God to bondage of others than God. In order to put an end to this fitnah, both persuasion and force be used, whenever and to the extent to which each of the two is needed, and a true believer will not rest until the unbelievers give up this fitnah.

The statement that hostility is meant only against wrong-doers seems to imply that when the true system of life replaces the false one, ordinary people should be granted a general amnesty. At the same time, however, it would be justifiable to punish those who exceeded all limits in their hostility to the Truth, at the time when they held the reins of power. Yet in dealing with such people, it becomes the true believers, after they have one final victory, to adopt a general attitude of forgiveness and tolerance towards the vanquished rather than subject them to revenge for the wrongs they committed in the past. Those criminals whose records were exceptionally bad could, however, be punished. The Prophet (peace be on him), availed himself of this permission in respect of some notorious enemies whose hostility had exceeded all limits, even though pardon and forgiveness behoved none more than him. Thus 'Uqbah ibn Abi Mu'avt and Nadr b. Harith from among the captives of the Battle of Badr were put to death and when a general amnesty, was proclaimed after the conquest of Makka four out of seventeen persons were executed. (See Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, p. 644 and vol. 2, pp. 409 ff. - Ed.) These acts were based on the permission to put to the sword those who have been conspicuously ruthless in their hostility to Islam and the Muslims.

206. From the time of Abraham three months - Dhu al-Qa'dah, Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram - were consecrated for Hajj, and the month of Rajab was consecrated for 'Umrah. For the duration of these four months warfare, killing and pillage were prohibited so that people could perform Pilgrimage and return home safely. For this reason these months were called the 'sacred months'.

The purpose of the verse is to stress that if the unbelievers respect the sanctity of the sacred months, the Muslims should do the same. If, however, they violate this sanctity and subject the Muslims to aggression, then the Muslims are also entitled to retribution even during the 'sacred months'.

The permission mentioned here was called forth by the introduction of nasi', a practice which had been introduced by the Arabs in order to have an advantage over others in their battles and raids. The manner in which the Arabs used nasi' was such that whenever they wished either to start a conflict in order to satisfy their vendetta or to loot and plunder they carried out their raid in one of the sacred months and then later on tried to compensate for this violation by treating one of the non-sacred months as a sacred month. The Muslims were, therefore, concerned as to what they should do in case the unbelievers resorted to this artifice and surprised them by an attack in one of the recognized sacred months. The verse refers to this problem.

207. 'To spend in the way of Allah' signifies financial sacrifice in order to establish God's religion. Not to make any financial sacrifice but to be inclined, instead, to hold personal interests dear to one's heart will lead to one's ruin both in this world and in the Next. Allah will set the unbelievers to dominate over you in this world and condemn you in the Next world.

208. The root of the word ihsan is HSN, which means doing something in a goodly manner.

One standard of conduct is merely to perform the task entrusted to one. The other and higher standard is to perform that task in a wholesome manner, to devote all one's capacities and resources to its fulfilment, to do one's duty with all one's heart. The first standard is that of ordinary obedience for which it is enough that a man should fear God. The other and higher standard is that of ihsan (moral and spiritual excellence) for which it is necessary that one should have a strong love for God and a profound attachment to Him.

209. If any obstruction prevents a person from proceeding with the Pilgrimage and he is forced to stay behind, he should make a sacrificial offering to God of whatever is available - for example, either a camel, a cow, a goat or a sheep

210. The statement: 'until the offering reaches its appointed place' has been variously interpreted by the jurists. The Hanafi jurists consider this to signify the area which lies within the boundaries of the Haram. In their view this injunction means that if a man has been prevented from Pilgrimage he ought to send to the Haram either the animal itself or the money to purchase it, and have a sacrificial offering made on his behalf. According to Malik and al-Shafi'i this verse enjoins one to perform a sacrifice at the very spot where one is prevented from going any further. (See also Qurtubi's commentary on the verse - Ed.) The injunction regarding 'shaving the head' means that one may not have one's hair cut until a sacrificial offering has been made.

211. According to the Hadith, in such a situation the Prophet (peace be on him) ordered three days of fasting, or the feeding of six poor people, or the slaughter of one sheep or goat. (See Bukhari, 'Maghazi', 35; Muslim, 'Hajj', 83 - Ed.)

212. This refers to the change in the situation when the obstacle to proceeding with the Pilgrimage has been removed. Since, in those days, the circumstances which most commonly prevented people from proceeding with their Pilgrimage was the danger of armed attack from tribes hostile to Islam, the removal of that circumstance is described by the words: 'when you are secure'. 'To become secure' refers not only to the removal of the danger of armed attack but to the removal of all such dangers.

213. In pre-Islamic Arabia it was considered a serious sin to perform Hajj and 'Umrah in one and the same journey. According to the self-made law of the pre-Islamic Arabs, each of these Pilgrimages required a separate journey. God declared this law void for those coming from abroad and who were granted the privilege of performing both types of pilgrimage in the same journey. This privilege, however, was not extended to those living in the environs of Makka, within the miqat, since it is not difficult for them to proceed separately for the major and minor Pilgrimages.

'Then you who take advantage of 'Umrah before the time of Hajj' means that a person may perform 'Umrah (minor Pilgrimage) and then may interrupt the state of consecration (ihram) and free himself of the prohibitions and limitations incumbent upon him in that state. Later, when the time for the Hajj (major Pilgrimage) arrives, he should once again assume the state of consecration (ihram).