وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِand (do) not be ungrateful to Me.
وَٱلصَّلَوٲةِۚand the prayer.
ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَthe patient ones.
وَلَا تَقُولُواْAnd (do) not say
لِمَنfor (the ones) who
أَمْوَٲتُۢۚ`(They are) dead.`
أَحْيَآءٌ(they are) alive
لَّا تَشْعُرُونَyou (do) not perceive.
وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمAnd surely We will test you
وَٱلْجُوعِand [the] hunger
وَٱلْأَنفُسِand [the] lives
وَٱلثَّمَرَٲتِۗand [the] fruits,
وَبَشِّرِbut give good news
ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ(to) the patient ones.
إِنَّا لِلَّهِ`Indeed, we belong to Allah
وَإِنَّآand indeed we
مِّن رَّبِّهِمْfrom their Lord
ٱلْمُهْتَدُونَ(are) the guided ones.
وَٱلْمَرْوَةَand the Marwah
مِن شَعَآئِرِ(are) from (the) symbols
ٱلْبَيْتَ(of) the House
بِهِمَاۚbetween [both of] them.
فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَthen indeed, Allah
ٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِthe clear proofs,
وَٱلْهُدَىٰand the Guidance,
مَا بَيَّنَّـٰهُ[what] We made clear
لِلنَّاسِto the people
ٱلْكِتَـٰبِۙthe Book -
يَلْعَنُهُمُ ٱللَّهُAllah curses them
وَيَلْعَنُهُمُand curse them
ٱللَّـٰعِنُونَthe ones who curse.
وَبَيَّنُواْand openly declar[ed].
أَتُوبُI will accept repentance
وَأَنَاand I (am)
ٱلتَّوَّابُthe Acceptor of Repentance,
ٱلرَّحِيمُthe Most Merciful.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَIndeed, those who
لَعْنَةُ(is the) curse
وَٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِand the Angels,
وَٱلنَّاسِand the mankind,
خَـٰلِدِينَ(Will) abide forever
لَا يُخَفَّفُWill not be lightened
يُنظَرُونَwill be reprieved.
وَإِلَـٰهُكُمْAnd your God
إِلَـٰهٌ وَٲحِدٌۖ(is) one God;
لَّآ إِلَـٰهَ(there is) no god
ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُthe Most Gracious,
ٱلرَّحِيمُthe Most Merciful.
(2:152) So remember Me and I shall remember you; give thanks to Me and do
not be ungrateful to Me for My favours.
فَاذۡكُرُوۡنِىۡٓ اَذۡكُرۡكُمۡ وَاشۡکُرُوۡا لِىۡ وَلَا تَكۡفُرُوۡنِ
(2:153) Believers!153 Seek help in patience and in Prayer; Allah
is with those that are patient.154 يٰٓاَيُّهَا الَّذِيۡنَ اٰمَنُوا اسۡتَعِيۡنُوۡا بِالصَّبۡرِ وَالصَّلٰوةِ ؕ
اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَ الصّٰبِرِيۡنَ
(2:154) And do not say of those who are killed in the way of Allah that they
are dead; they are alive even though you have no knowledge of their life.155 وَلَا تَقُوۡلُوۡا لِمَنۡ يُّقۡتَلُ فِىۡ سَبِيۡلِ اللّٰهِ اَمۡوَاتٌ ؕ بَلۡ
اَحۡيَآءٌ وَّلٰـكِنۡ لَّا تَشۡعُرُوۡنَ
(2:155) We shall certainly test you by afflicting you with fear, hunger,
loss of properties and lives and fruits. Give glad tidings, then, to those who
وَلَـنَبۡلُوَنَّكُمۡ بِشَىۡءٍ مِّنَ الۡخَـوۡفِ وَالۡجُـوۡعِ وَنَقۡصٍ مِّنَ
الۡاَمۡوَالِ وَالۡاَنۡفُسِ وَالثَّمَرٰتِؕ وَبَشِّرِ الصّٰبِرِيۡنَۙ
(2:156) those who when any affliction smites them, they say: “Verily, we
belong to Allah, and it is to Him that we are destined to return.”156 الَّذِيۡنَ اِذَآ اَصَابَتۡهُمۡ مُّصِيۡبَةٌ ۙ قَالُوۡٓا اِنَّا لِلّٰهِ وَاِنَّـآ
(2:157) Upon them will be the blessings and mercy of their Lord, and it is
they who are rightly guided.
اُولٰٓٮِٕكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ صَلَوٰتٌ مِّنۡ رَّبِّهِمۡ وَرَحۡمَةٌ وَاُولٰٓٮِٕكَ
(2:158) Surely, al-Safa and al-Marwah are the symbols of Allah. Hence, whoever
performs Hajj (Full Pilgrimage)157 to the House (of Allah) or makes
'Umrah (Minor Pilgrimage), will find that it is no sin for him to ambulate between
the two.158 And whoever does a good work voluntarily159
should know that Allah is Appreciative, All-Knowing.
اِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالۡمَرۡوَةَ مِنۡ شَعَآٮِٕرِ اللّٰهِۚ فَمَنۡ حَجَّ الۡبَيۡتَ
اَوِ اعۡتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡهِ اَنۡ يَّطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ؕ وَمَنۡ تَطَوَّعَ
خَيۡرًا ۙ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيۡمٌ
(2:159) Those who conceal anything of the clear teachings and true guidance
which We have sent down even though We have made them clear in Our Book, Allah
curses such people and so do all the cursers,160 اِنَّ الَّذِيۡنَ يَكۡتُمُوۡنَ مَآ اَنۡزَلۡنَا مِنَ الۡبَيِّنٰتِ وَالۡهُدٰى
مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِ مَا بَيَّنّٰهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِى الۡكِتٰبِۙ اُولٰٓٮِٕكَ يَلۡعَنُهُمُ اللّٰهُ
وَ يَلۡعَنُهُمُ اللّٰعِنُوۡنَۙ
(2:160) except those who repent and make amends and openly declare (what
they had concealed). Such shall I pardon for I am Much- Relenting, Most Compassionate.
اِلَّا الَّذِيۡنَ تَابُوۡا وَاَصۡلَحُوۡا وَبَيَّـنُوۡا فَاُولٰٓٮِٕكَ اَ تُوۡبُ
عَلَيۡهِمۡۚ وَاَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيۡمُ
(2:161) As for those who disbelieved161 and died disbelieving,
surely the curse of Allah and of the angels and of all men is on them.
اِنَّ الَّذِيۡنَ كَفَرُوۡا وَمَاتُوۡا وَهُمۡ كُفَّارٌ اُولٰٓٮِٕكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ
لَعۡنَةُ اللّٰهِ وَالۡمَلٰٓٮِٕكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ اَجۡمَعِيۡنَۙ
(2:162) Thus shall they abide and their chastisement shall not be lightened,
nor shall they be given respite.
خٰلِدِيۡنَ فِيۡهَا ۚ لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنۡهُمُ الۡعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمۡ يُنۡظَرُوۡنَ
(2:163) Your God is One God, there is no god but He; the Most Merciful, the
وَاِلٰهُكُمۡ اِلٰهٌ وَّاحِدٌ ۚ لَآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحۡمٰنُ الرَّحِيۡمُ
153. Since the ummah has been invested with world leadership, a set of necessary
directives is now provided for its guidance. Before laying down these directives
it seemed necessary to caution the Muslims that the office which had been conferred
on them was indeed no bed of roses. On the contrary, it was a great and perilous
responsibility. Once they undertook it, they would be subjected to all kinds
of afflictions, put to all kinds of trials and tribulations and made to bear
all kinds of deprivation. If, however, the Muslims persisted along the path
of God despite the perils they would be rewarded with God's favour in full measure.
154. To acquire the strength that is needed to bear this heavy burden of
responsibility the believers should do two things: they should develop patience
and they should strengthen themselves by devoting themselves to Prayer.
Later we shall encounter elaborations which will show that 'patience' is a word
embracing a whole set of moral virtues of the utmost importance. 'Patience'
is indeed an indispensable key to success. Likewise, we shall later have occasion
to note in some detail how Prayer prepares the Muslims, both as individuals
and as a collective body, to carry out their mission.
155. The word 'death' as well as its general concept has a depressing effect.
People have therefore been instructed not to refer to martyrs who laid down
their lives for God as 'dead', since this might lead to the dissipation of the
spirit which enables people to struggle and make sacrifices in God's cause.
Instead, people have been instructed to bear in mind that anyone who lays down
his life for God has in fact attained immortality. As well as being a statement
of fact this also helps to arouse and sustain courage.
156. 'Saying' does not signify the mere making of a statement. It means a
statement which is accompanied by a deep conviction in one's heart: 'To Allah
do we belong.' This being so, a man is bound to think that whatever has been
sacrificed for God has in fact attained its legitimate end, for it has been
spent in the way of the One to whom all things truly belong.
'And it is to Him that we are destined to return' refers to the fact that man
will not stay forever in this world and will return, sooner or later, to God.
And if man is indeed destined to return to God why should he not return to Him
having spent his all, having staked his life for His sake? This alternative
is preferable to the pursuit of self-aggrandizement and then meeting death either
by sickness or accident.
157. The pilgrimage to the Ka'bah along with a set of other rites on certain
fixed dates of Dhu al-Hijjah is known as hajj. Pilgrimage at other times is
known as 'Umrah.
158. Safa and Marwah are the names of two hillocks near the Holy Mosque in
Makka. To run between these two hillocks was among the rites which God had taught
Abraham in connection with hajj. Later, when Pagan Ignorance prevailed in Makka
and the neighbouring regions, altars were built for Isaf at Safa and for Nai'lah
at Marwah, and people began to circumambulate them. After the advent of the
Prophet, when the light of Islam had spread to the people of Arabia, Muslims
came to doubt whether running between Safa and Marwah was one of the original
rites of Pilgrimage or was merely an invidious religious innovation of the Age
of Ignorance. If it was in fact such, they feared they might be committing an
act of polytheism.
Moreover, we learn from a Tradition transmitted from 'A'ishah that even in pre-Islamic
times the people of Madina were not favourably disposed to this practice. Although
they believed in al-Manat they did not believe in Isaf and Nai'lah. For these
reasons, it was necessary, at the time of the change of the qiblah, to dispel
popular misconceptions about this rite. It seemed necessary to tell people that
running between these two hillocks was part of the original rites of Pilgrimage
and that the sanctity, of Safa and Marwah, far from being an invidious innovation
of the people of the Age of Ignorance, stemmed from the revealed Law of God.
159. It is best that one should perform this ritual obligation with wholehearted
devotion. But if devotion is lacking one is not thereby exempt from fulfilling
one's obligation. One must perform this ritual if only out of a sense of duty.
160. The biggest failure of the Jews was that they kept the teachings contained
in the Book of God confined to a limited class of people, the rabbis and professional
theologians, instead of spreading them. They did not allow this knowledge to
filter through even to the Jewish masses let alone the non-Jewish peoples of
the world. Later, when errors and corruptions spread among them owing to widespread
ignorance the Jewish theologians made no serious effort to root them out. Moreover,
in order to maintain their hold on the Jewish masses they lent their tacit approval
to every corrupting deviation from the true faith that gained currency.
The Muslims are being admonished to refrain from this kind of behaviour. The
nation which has been charged with the guidance of the entire world is duty-bound
to do its utmost to radiate true guidance, rather than keep it under lock and
key as a miser hoards his money.
161. The original meaning of kufr is to conceal. This lent the word a nuance
of denial and it began to be used as an antonym of iman . Iman means to believe,
to accept, and to recognize. Kufr, on the contrary, denotes refusal to believe,
to deny, to reject. According to the Qur'an there are several possible forms
of disbelief. One is to refuse either to believe in the existence of God, to
acknowledge His sovereignty, to recognize Him as the only Lord of the Universe
and of mankind or to recognize Him as the only Lord and the only object of worship
and adoration. The second form of disbelief is when a man recognizes the existence
of God but still refuses to accept His ordinances and directives as the only
source of true guidance, and as the true law for his life. The third form of
disbelief is when even though a man recognizes in principle that he ought to
follow the guidance of God he refuses to believe in the Prophets who were the
means of communicating God's guidance to man. The fourth form of disbelief is
to differentiate between one Prophet and another and, out of parochialism and
bigotry, to accept some Prophets and reject others. The fifth form of disbelief
is the refusal to recognize, either totally or partially, the teachings communicated
by the Prophets, on God's behalf, concerning the beliefs, the principles of
morality, and the laws for fashioning human life. The sixth form of disbelief
is where a person theoretically accepts all that he should accept but wilfully
disobeys God's ordinances and persists in this disobedience, and considers disobedience
rather than obedience to God to be the true principle of life.
All these modes of thought and action are forms of rebellion towards God and
the Qur'an characterizes each of them as kufr. In addition, the term kufr is
used at several places in the Qur'an in the sense of ingratitude and in this
usage it signifies the exact opposite of shukr (gratitude). Gratefulness consists
in feeling thankful to one's benefactor, in duly recognizing the value of his
benevolence, in making use of it in a manner pleasing to its bestower, and in
being utterly loyal to him. Ingratitude denotes, on the contrary, that the man
concerned has either failed to recognize the bounty of his benefactor, or considers
it to be either the outcome of his own power and ability or else that of some
other person's favour or intercession. Another form of ingratitude consists
in failing to recognize fully the worth of the bounty received and in either
allowing it to be wasted or to be used in contravention of the will of the benefactor;
this ingratitude includes infidelity and treachery towards the benefactor in
disregard of his benevolence and kindness. This kind of kufr is known in ordinary
language as ungratefulness.