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 Surah Al-Baqarah 2:130-141 [16/40]
  
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وَمَنAnd who
يَرْغَبُ عَنwill turn away from
مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَٲهِــۧمَIbrahim`s religion
إِلَّاexcept
مَنwho
سَفِهَfooled
نَفْسَهُۥ‌ۚhimself?
وَلَقَدِAnd indeed
ٱصْطَفَيْنَـٰهُWe chose him
فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا‌ۖin the world,
وَإِنَّهُۥand indeed he,
فِىin,
ٱلْأَخِرَةِthe Hereafter
لَمِنَsurely (will be) among
ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَthe righteous.
﴿١٣٠﴾
إِذْWhen
قَالَsaid
لَهُۥto him
رَبُّهُۥٓhis Lord
أَسْلِمْ‌ۖ`Submit (yourself),`
قَالَhe said,
أَسْلَمْتُ`I (have) submitted (myself)
لِرَبِّto (the) Lord
ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ(of) the worlds.`
﴿١٣١﴾
وَوَصَّىٰAnd enjoined
بِهَآ[it]
إِبْرَٲهِــۧمُIbrahim
بَنِيهِ(upon) his sons
وَيَعْقُوبُand Yaqub,
يَـٰبَنِىَّ`O my sons!
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَIndeed, Allah
ٱصْطَفَىٰhas chosen
لَكُمُfor you
ٱلدِّينَthe religion,
فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّso you should not die
إِلَّاexcept
وَأَنتُمwhile you
مُّسْلِمُونَ(are) submissive.`
﴿١٣٢﴾
أَمْOr
كُنتُمْwere you
شُهَدَآءَwitnesses
إِذْwhen
حَضَرَcame to
يَعْقُوبَYaqub
ٱلْمَوْتُ[the] death,
إِذْwhen
قَالَhe said
لِبَنِيهِto his sons,
مَا`What
تَعْبُدُونَwill you worship
مِنۢ بَعْدِىafter me?`
قَالُواْThey said,
نَعْبُدُ`We will worship
إِلَـٰهَكَyour God
وَإِلَـٰهَand (the) God
ءَابَآئِكَ(of) your forefathers,
إِبْرَٲهِــۧمَIbrahim
وَإِسْمَـٰعِيلَand Ismail
وَإِسْحَـٰقَand Ishaq -
إِلَـٰهًاGod
وَٲحِدًاOne.
وَنَحْنُAnd we
لَهُۥto Him
مُسْلِمُونَ(are) submissive.`
﴿١٣٣﴾
تِلْكَThis
أُمَّةٌ(was) a community
قَدْ خَلَتْ‌ۖ(which) has passed away,
لَهَاfor it
مَا كَسَبَتْwhat it earned
وَلَكُمand for you
مَّاwhat
كَسَبْتُمْ‌ۖyou earned.
وَلَاAnd not
تُسْــَٔلُونَyou will be asked
عَمَّاabout what
كَانُواْthey used to
يَعْمَلُونَdo.
﴿١٣٤﴾
وَقَالُواْAnd they said,
كُونُواْ`Be
هُودًاJews
أَوْor
نَصَـٰرَىٰChristians,
تَهْتَدُواْ‌ۗ(then) you will be guided.`
قُلْSay,
بَلْ`Nay,
مِلَّةَ(the) religion
إِبْرَٲهِــۧمَ(of) Ibrahim,
حَنِيفًا‌ۖ(the) upright;
وَمَاand not
كَانَhe was
مِنَof
ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَthose who associated partners (with Allah).`
﴿١٣٥﴾
قُولُوٓاْSay,
ءَامَنَّا`We have believed
بِٱللَّهِin Allah
وَمَآand what
أُنزِلَ(is) revealed
إِلَيْنَاto us
وَمَآand what
أُنزِلَwas revealed
إِلَىٰٓto
إِبْرَٲهِــۧمَIbrahim
وَإِسْمَـٰعِيلَand Ismail
وَإِسْحَـٰقَand Ishaq
وَيَعْقُوبَand Yaqub
وَٱلْأَسْبَاطِand the descendants,
وَمَآand what
أُوتِىَwas given
مُوسَىٰ(to) Musa
وَعِيسَىٰand Isa
وَمَآand what
أُوتِىَwas given
ٱلنَّبِيُّونَ(to) the Prophets
مِنfrom
رَّبِّهِمْtheir Lord.
لَاNot
نُفَرِّقُwe make distinction
بَيْنَbetween
أَحَدٍany
مِّنْهُمْof them.
وَنَحْنُAnd we
لَهُۥto Him
مُسْلِمُونَ(are) submissive. `
﴿١٣٦﴾
فَإِنْSo if
ءَامَنُواْthey believe[d]
بِمِثْلِin (the) like
مَآ(of) what
ءَامَنتُمyou have believed
بِهِۦin [it],
فَقَدِthen indeed,
ٱهْتَدَواْ‌ۖthey are (rightly) guided.
وَّإِنBut if
تَوَلَّوْاْthey turn away,
فَإِنَّمَاthen only
هُمْthey
فِى(are) in
شِقَاقٍ‌ۖdissension.
فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۚSo Allah will suffice you against them,
وَهُوَand He
ٱلسَّمِيعُ(is) the All-Hearing,
ٱلْعَلِيمُthe All-Knowing.
﴿١٣٧﴾
صِبْغَةَ(The) color (religion)
ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ(of) Allah!
وَمَنْAnd who
أَحْسَنُ(is) better
مِنَthan
ٱللَّهِ صِبْغَةً‌ۖAllah at coloring?
وَنَحْنُAnd we
لَهُۥto Him
عَـٰبِدُونَ(are) worshippers.
﴿١٣٨﴾
قُلْSay,
أَتُحَآجُّونَنَا`Do you argue with us
فِىabout
ٱللَّهِAllah
وَهُوَwhile He
رَبُّنَا(is) our Lord
وَرَبُّكُمْand your Lord?
وَلَنَآAnd for us
أَعْمَـٰلُنَا(are) our deeds
وَلَكُمْand for you
أَعْمَـٰلُكُمْ(are) your deeds
وَنَحْنُand we
لَهُۥto Him
مُخْلِصُونَ(are) sincere.
﴿١٣٩﴾
أَمْOr
تَقُولُونَ(do) you say
إِنَّthat
إِبْرَٲهِــۧمَIbrahim
وَإِسْمَـٰعِيلَand Ismail
وَإِسْحَـٰقَand Ishaq
وَيَعْقُوبَand Yaqub
وَٱلْأَسْبَاطَand the descendants
كَانُواْwere
هُودًاJews
أَوْor
نَصَـٰرَىٰ‌ۗChristians?`
قُلْSay,
ءَأَنتُمْ`Are you
أَعْلَمُbetter knowing
أَمِ ٱللَّهُ‌ۗor (is) Allah?`
وَمَنْAnd who
أَظْلَمُ(is) more unjust
مِمَّنthan (the one) who
كَتَمَconcealed
شَهَـٰدَةًa testimony
عِندَهُۥ(that) he has
مِنَfrom
ٱللَّهِ‌ۗAllah?
وَمَاAnd not
ٱللَّهُ(is) Allah
بِغَـٰفِلٍunaware
عَمَّاof what
تَعْمَلُونَyou do.
﴿١٤٠﴾
تِلْكَThis
أُمَّةٌ(was) a community
قَدْ خَلَتْ‌ۖ(which) has passed away.
لَهَاFor it
مَاwhat
كَسَبَتْit earned
وَلَكُمand for you
مَّاwhat
كَسَبْتُمْ‌ۖyou have earned.
وَلَاAnd not
تُسْــَٔلُونَyou will be asked
عَمَّاabout what
كَانُواْthey used to
يَعْمَلُونَdo.
﴿١٤١﴾


وَمَنۡ يَّرۡغَبُ عَنۡ مِّلَّةِ اِبۡرٰهٖمَ اِلَّا مَنۡ سَفِهَ نَفۡسَهٗ ​ؕ وَلَقَدِ اصۡطَفَيۡنٰهُ فِى الدُّنۡيَا ​ۚ وَاِنَّهٗ فِى الۡاٰخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصّٰلِحِيۡنَ‏   اِذۡ قَالَ لَهٗ رَبُّهٗۤ اَسۡلِمۡ​ۙ قَالَ اَسۡلَمۡتُ لِرَبِّ الۡعٰلَمِيۡنَ‏   وَوَصّٰى بِهَآ اِبۡرٰهٖمُ بَنِيۡهِ وَ يَعۡقُوۡبُؕ يٰبَنِىَّ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ اصۡطَفٰى لَـكُمُ الدِّيۡنَ فَلَا تَمُوۡتُنَّ اِلَّا وَاَنۡـتُمۡ مُّسۡلِمُوۡنَؕ‏‏   اَمۡ كُنۡتُمۡ شُهَدَآءَ اِذۡ حَضَرَ يَعۡقُوۡبَ الۡمَوۡتُۙ اِذۡ قَالَ لِبَنِيۡهِ مَا تَعۡبُدُوۡنَ مِنۡۢ بَعۡدِىۡؕ قَالُوۡا نَعۡبُدُ اِلٰهَكَ وَاِلٰهَ اٰبَآئِكَ اِبۡرٰهٖمَ وَاِسۡمٰعِيۡلَ وَاِسۡحٰقَ اِلٰهًا وَّاحِدًا ۖۚ وَّنَحۡنُ لَهٗ مُسۡلِمُوۡنَ‏   تِلۡكَ اُمَّةٌ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ​ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتۡ وَلَـكُمۡ مَّا كَسَبۡتُمۡ​ۚ وَلَا تُسۡـئَـلُوۡنَ عَمَّا كَانُوۡا يَعۡمَلُوۡنَ‏  وَقَالُوۡا کُوۡنُوۡا هُوۡدًا اَوۡ نَصٰرٰى تَهۡتَدُوۡا ​ؕ قُلۡ بَلۡ مِلَّةَ اِبۡرٰهٖمَ حَنِيۡفًا ​ؕ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِيۡنَ‏  قُوۡلُوۡٓا اٰمَنَّا بِاللّٰهِ وَمَآ اُنۡزِلَ اِلَيۡنَا وَمَآ اُنۡزِلَ اِلٰٓى اِبۡرٰهٖمَ وَاِسۡمٰعِيۡلَ وَاِسۡحٰقَ وَيَعۡقُوۡبَ وَ الۡاَسۡبَاطِ وَمَآ اُوۡتِىَ مُوۡسٰى وَعِيۡسٰى وَمَآ اُوۡتِىَ النَّبِيُّوۡنَ مِنۡ رَّبِّهِمۡ​ۚ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيۡنَ اَحَدٍ مِّنۡهُمۡ وَنَحۡنُ لَهٗ مُسۡلِمُوۡنَ‏  فَاِنۡ اٰمَنُوۡا بِمِثۡلِ مَآ اٰمَنۡتُمۡ بِهٖ فَقَدِ اهۡتَدَوْا ​ۚ وَاِنۡ تَوَلَّوۡا فَاِنَّمَا هُمۡ فِىۡ شِقَاقٍ​ ۚ فَسَيَكۡفِيۡکَهُمُ اللّٰهُ ​ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيۡعُ الۡعَلِيۡمُؕ‏  صِبۡغَةَ اللّٰهِ ​ۚ وَمَنۡ اَحۡسَنُ مِنَ اللّٰهِ صِبۡغَةً  وَّنَحۡنُ لَهٗ عٰبِدُوۡنَ‏  قُلۡ اَ تُحَآجُّوۡنَـنَا فِى اللّٰهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّکُمۡۚ وَلَنَآ اَعۡمَالُـنَا وَلَـكُمۡ اَعۡمَالُكُمۡۚ وَنَحۡنُ لَهٗ مُخۡلِصُوۡنَۙ‏  اَمۡ تَقُوۡلُوۡنَ اِنَّ اِبۡرٰهٖمَ وَاِسۡمٰعِيۡلَ وَاِسۡحٰقَ وَيَعۡقُوۡبَ وَالۡاَسۡبَاطَ كَانُوۡا هُوۡدًا اَوۡ نَصٰرٰى​ؕ قُلۡ ءَاَنۡـتُمۡ اَعۡلَمُ اَمِ اللّٰهُ​ ؕ وَمَنۡ اَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنۡ كَتَمَ شَهَادَةً عِنۡدَهٗ مِنَ اللّٰهِ​ؕ وَمَا اللّٰهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُوۡنَ‏  تِلۡكَ اُمَّةٌ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ​ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتۡ وَلَـكُمۡ مَّا كَسَبۡتُمۡ​ۚ وَلَا تُسۡـئَـلُوۡنَ عَمَّا كَانُوۡا يَعۡمَلُوۡنَ‏ 
(2:130) And who but a fool would be averse to the way of Abraham? For it is We Who chose Abraham for Our mission in this world, and surely in the World to Come he shall be reckoned among the righteous. (2:131) Such was Abraham that when his Lord said to him: “Submit,”130 he said: “I have submitted to the Lord of the Universe.” (2:132) And Abraham enjoined the same upon his children, and so did Jacob:131 “My children! Behold, Allah has chosen this religion for you.132 Remain till death in submission (to Allah).”133 (2:133) Why, were you witnesses when death came to Jacob? He asked his children: “Whom will you serve after me?” They said: “We shall serve your God, the God of your forefathers, Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac, the One God, and unto Him do we submit.” (2:134) Now, they were a people who passed away. Theirs is what they have earned, and yours is what you have earned. You shall not be asked concerning what they did.134 (2:135) They say: “Be Jews,” or “Be Christians.” “Then you will be rightly guided.” Say to them: “No, follow exclusively the way of Abraham who was not one of those who associate others with Allah in His Divinity.”135 (2:136) Say: “We believe in Allah, and in what has been revealed to us and to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the descendants (of Jacob) and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and in what the other Prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them,136 and we are those who submit to Allah.” (2:137) And then if they come to believe as you believe, they are on right guidance; and if they turn away, then quite obviously they have merely fallen into opposition to the Truth. Allah will suffice you for protection against them. He is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (2:138) Say: “Take on Allah’s colour.”137 And whose colour is better than Allah’s? It is Him that we serve. (2:139) Say (O Prophet): “Will you then dispute with us concerning Allah when He is our Lord and your Lord?138 Our deeds are for us and your deeds are for you. And it is Him that we serve exclusively.”139 (2:140) Or do you claim that Abraham and Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob and the descendants (of Jacob) were “Jews” or “Christians?” Say: “Who has greater knowledge, you or Allah?”140 Who does greater wrong than he who conceals a testimony he has received from Allah? Allah is not heedless of the things you do.141 (2:141) Now, they were a people who passed away. Theirs is what they earned, and yours is what you earn; you shall not be questioned concerning what they did.

130. 'Muslim' signifies he who bows in obedience to God, who acknowledges God alone as his Sovereign, Lord and Master, and the only object of worship, devotion and service, who unreservedly surrenders himself to God and undertakes to live his life in accordance with the guidance that has come down from Him. Islam is the appellation which characterizes the above -mentioned belief and outlook which constitutes the core and kernel of the religion of all the Prophets who have appeared from time to time among different peoples and in different countries since the very beginning of human life.

131. Jacob is especially mentioned since the Children of Israel were his direct descendants.

132. Din is a Qur'anic technical term, signifying the way of life, the system of conduct, and the code on which man bases his entire mode of thought and action. (For the author's views on din see his Four Basic Qur'anic Terms, tr. Abu Asad, Lahore, 1979, pp. 93-103 - Ed.)

133. In the Bible the events connected with the death of Jacob (peace be on him) are narrated in detail. It is amazing that this narrative makes no reference to his testament. However, the contents of the detailed testament embodied in the Talmud greatly resemble the Qur'anic version. The Talmudic version reads as follows:

'Serve the Lord your God, and He will deliver ye from all trouble, even as He delivered your fathers.'

' . . . Teach your children to love God, and observe His commandments, in order that their days may be prolonged, for God will guard those who do justly and walk in righteousness through all His ways.'

And the sons of Jacob responded, 'All that you have commanded us, our father, we will do. May God be with us!'

And Jacob answered: 'The Lord will be with you if ye depart not from His ways to the right hand or to the left.'

(The Talmud Selections by H. Polano, London, Frederick Warne & Co., [1877], pp. 113-14.)

134. What is being said here is that even though they might be their offspring in terms of blood - relationship they had, in fact, no true relationship with them. What right did they have to pretend to belong to them when they had departed far from their way? For God would not ask people what their forefathers did; it was rather about their own conduct and action that they would be questioned.

' Theirs is what they have earned ' is a characteristically Qur'anic expression. What we ordinarily characterize as either 'action' or 'doing' is termed by the Qur'an as 'earning'. The reason is that each and every human action has its ultimate effect, whether or not it is good, and will have its manifestation in God's approval or disapproval. It is this ultimate effect which is a man's earning. Since the Qur'an considers this to be of paramount importance, it characterizes man's actions as his 'earning'.

135. In order to grasp the subtlety, of this remark two things should be borne in mind. First, that in comparison to Islam, the primordial religion, both Judaism and Christianity are later products. The name Judaism, as well as the characteristic features and elaborate body of laws and regulations associated with it. emerged during the third or fourth century, B.C. As for Christianity. in the sense of the body of dogmas and theological doctrines which characterize it, it came into existence long after Jesus (peace be on him). The question that naturally arises is that, if man's guidance depends on following Judaism or Christianity, how can Abraham and other Prophets and righteous people who are accepted as having been rightly-guided even by the Jews and Christians be considered so when they were born several centuries before the birth of Judaism and Christianity? If they were rightly-guided from whom did they receive their guidance? Obviously their source of guidance and inspiration was neither Judaism nor Christianity since, in their times, these did not exist. So man's rectitude does not depend on those characteristics which led to the rise of Jewish and Christian particularisms; it rather depends on adopting that universal way to Truth which has guided and inspired men throughout the ages.

Second. the Scriptures of the Jews and Christians attest that Abraham believed that worship, adoration, service and obedience were due to God alone, and that it was his mission to have none associated with God in His attributes and rights. Since polytheistic elements had made inroads into Judaism and Christianity it was obvious that both had strayed from the way of Abraham.

136. To make no distinction between the Prophets means not to hold some of them to he right and the others to be wrong, not to recognize some to have been the recipients of Divine revelation and the others not. All the Prophets sent by God invited men to the same Truth and to the same way. Hence for anyone who is really a lover of Truth it is necessary that he should recognize all of them to be its bearers. Those who believe in one particular Prophet and disbelieve in others do not in fact believe even in that particular Prophet in whom they, claim to believe, for they have not grasped the nature of that universal 'Straight Way' (al-sirat al-mustaqim) which was enunciated by Moses, Jesus and the other Prophets. When such people claim to follow a Prophet they, really mean that they do so out of deference to their forefathers. Their religion in fact consists of bigoted ancestor-worship and blind imitation of inherited customs rather than sincere adherence to the directives of any Prophet of God.

137. This verse can be translated in two ways. One of these is: 'We have taken on Allah's colour.' The other is: 'Take on Allah's colour.' On the eve of the advent of Christianity the Jews followed the practice of bathing everyone who embraced their religion. This ritual bath signified that all his previous sins had been washed away and that he had adopted a different colour for his life. This practice was subsequently taken over by the Christians and is termed 'baptism'. Not only converts but even new-born babies were baptized. The Qur'anic remarks here refer to this institution. The Qur'an says in effect: 'Of what use is this formal baptism? What really is worth doing is to adopt the colour of God, and it is not water that gives one this colour but actual service and devotion to God.'

138. The one principle that the Prophet and his followers unreservedly stood for was that God alone should be served. Does that call for dispute and quarrel? If anyone, it is the Muslims who are entitled to quarrel with the Jews and Christians, for it is they rather than the Muslims who insist that others beside God should also be made objects of service and adoration.

An alternative translation of this portion could be: 'Would you then dispute with us for the sake of Allah?' In this case the meaning of the verse would be that if their dispute was sincere, it was easy to put an end to it by, agreeing to serve none but God.

139. They are told that everyone is responsible for his own conduct. If they have earmarked a part of their service and devotion to others than God, let them do so and see for themselves what it leads to. The Muslims did not want to keep them from error by force. As for themselves, they had consecrated their service, obedience and worship to God alone. If the Jews and Christians could bring themselves to recognize the right of the Muslims to do so, the dispute could automatically be brought to an end,

140. This remark is addressed to the ignorant mass of Jews and Christians who sincerely believed that all the Prophets belonged to their religious denomination.

141. This remark is addressed to the Jewish and Christian theologians who were not unaware that Judaism and Christianity, with their existing characteristics, had emerged at a relatively late period in history. They nevertheless considered Truth to he confined to their own religious sects. They also perpetuated the misunderstanding that man's ultimate happiness and success lay in following the beliefs, institutions and legal codes which had been developed by their jurists, theologians and mystics long after the Prophet of God had passed away. When these theologians were asked to which among their religious communities Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and other Prophets belonged, they evaded a reply. This was because they could not state categorically that they belonged to their own sect. On the other hand, they could not reply explicitly in the negative, for such an admission would have undermined the very basis of their claim that Truth was confined to their fold.