Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 5: Tawaf or Circumambulation around Ka'bah

Introduction to Fiqh-us-Sunnah

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Volume 5, Page 69a: Performing Tawaf

-1- One must begin tawaf (circumambulation) with one's right shoulder uncovered, and the Ka'bah on one's left side, while facing the Black Stone, kissing it, if possible, or touching it with one's hand, or pointing in its direction, and saying, Bismillah wallahak baalla humma imanan bika wa tasdiqan bikitabika wa wafa'an bi 'ahdika wa ittiba'an li sunnati nabbiyyi sallalahu 'alaihi wa sallam (In the Name of Allah. Allah is the Greatest. O Allah! [I begin this tawafl believing in You, affirming the truth of Your Book, fulfilling my covenant with You, and following the example of the Prophet, peace be upon him)."

-2- Jogging lightly through the first three rounds around Ka'bah is encouraged. One should walk fast, keep close to Ka'bah as much as possible, and take short steps. In the next four rounds one should walk at normal pace. If one is unable to jog or get closer to Ka'bah, because of overcrowding around it, one may perform one's tawaf in any way possible.

Touching the Yemeni corner (Ar-Ruknul Yemeni) is encouraged, and so is kissing or touching the Black Stone in each of the seven rounds of tawaf, if possible.

-3- Making remembrance of Allah and supplicating to Him as much as possible is also encouraged. For this purpose one may choose any supplications that one feels comfortable with, without restricting oneself to any supplications or repeating what others (around one may be saying). There are no set supplications prescribed for this purpose. The supplications that some people take as prescribed for various rounds of tawaf have no authenticity. No such supplications are reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him). One should pray for oneself, for one's family and one' s Muslim brethren for anything good in this life or in the hereafter.

Some of the supplications that are reported in this regard are given below:

-1- Upon facing the Black Stone the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Allahumma imanan bika wa tasdiqan bikitabik wa wafa 'an bi'ahadika wa Itba'an li sunnat nabbiyyika bismillahi wallahu akbar (This is reported directly from the Prophet (peace be upon him)) (O Allah! I begin this tawaf believing in You, affirming the truth of Your Book, fulfilling my covenant with You, and following the example of Your Prophet, peace be upon him. In the Name of Allah! Allah is the Greatest!)"

-2- Upon commencing the tawaf the Prophet (peace be on him) said: "Subhan Allah wal hamdu lillah wa la ilaha illallah wallahu akbar wa la haula wa la quwwata illa billah (Glory to Allah, All praise is due to Allah, there is no god but Allah. Allah is the Greatest. There is no might nor power except with Allah)." (Ibn Majah)

-3- Upon reaching the Yemeni corner the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Rabbana aatina fid dunniyya hasanatan wa fil akhirati hasanatan wa qina 'azhaban nar (Our Lord! Grant us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the Fire).'' (Reported by Abu Daw'ud, and Ash-Shafi'i from the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the authority of 'Umar)

-4- Ash-Shafi'i said: "I like that each time on passing the Black Stone one should say Allahu Akbar, and while jogging one should supplicate and say: Allahumma ij 'alhu hajjan mabruran wa zhanban maghfuran wa Sa'iyan mashkuran (O Allah! Let this be an accepted Hajj, with sins forgiven, and a well appreciated effort)." And during each round of tawaf he would say: "Rabbighfir warham wa'fu 'ama ta'lam wa antal a'azzul akram allahumma aatina fid dunniyya hasanatan wafil aakhirati hasantan wa qina 'azhaban nar. (O my Lord. Forgive us, and have mercy upon us, pardon our sins that You only know, You are the Most Honored and Dignified. O Allah! Grant us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and protect us from the torment of the fire)."

It is reported about Ibn 'Abbas that while walking between the Yemeni corner and the Black Stone he used to say: "Allahumma qanni'nibima razaqtani wa barik lifihi wakhluf 'alayya kulla gha'ibatin bikhair. (O Allah! Let me be satisfied with what you provided me, O Allah! Bless it for me. O Allah! Substitute every good thing that I missed with something good."(Reported by Sa'id bin Mansur and al-Hakim)

Volume 5, Page 71: Reciting the Qur'an in Tawaf

A person may recite the Qur'an while performing tawaf, because the purpose of tawaf is to remember Allah and the Qur'an is a reminder and a remembrance of Allah. 'Aishah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Tawaf (circumambulation) around the House of Allah, walking between Safa and Marwah, and throwing the pebbles at the Jamarahs are instituted for the remembrance of Allah." (Reported by Abu Daw'ud and Tirrnizhi who considers it a sound hadith)

Volume 5, Page 71a: Excellence of Tawaf

Ibn 'Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) said, "Every day Allah descends a hundred and twenty folds of His Mercy to His slaves who perform Hajj (to His House). Sixty-fold of these are specified for people performing tawaf, forty-fold for those who pray there, and twenty for those who look at the Ka'bah."

-5- Upon completing one's tawaf, one must offer a two rak'ah prayer at the Station of Ibrahim, reciting the verse of the Qur'an 2.125 "And take the Station of Abraham as a place of prayer." This will complete one tawaf around the Ka'bah.

This tawaf is called Tawafal Qudum (Arrival Circumambulation), if a pilgrim is performing a mufrid (single) Hajj. Otherwise it is called Tawaf al Tahayya (Circumambulation of Greeting), or Tawafad Dakhul (Circumambulation of Entry). It is neither an essential condition nor an obligation. For a pilgrim performing Hajj Tamattu' (combining Hajj and 'Umrah with a break), or performing Hajj Qiran (combining Hajj and 'Umrah without a break), it is Tawafal 'Umrah ('Umrah Circumambulation), and after having performed it a pilgrim does not need to perform a Tawafal Tahaya or Tawafal Qudum. Such a pilgrim must, however, complete his 'Umrah making a Sa'i (seven rounds of walking) between the hills of Safa and Marwah.

Volume 5, Page 72: Kinds of Tawaf

-1- Tawafal Qudum (Arrival Circumambulation).

-2- Tawafal Ifada (Return from Mina Circumambulation).

-3- Tawafal Wida' (Farewell Circumambulation). We will deal with it separately at its place.

-4- Tawafat Tatawwu' (Supererogatory Circumambulation).

The pilgrim should make full use of his stay at Makkah performing as much supererogatory tauaf and prayers in the Sacred Mosque as possible. A prayer in it is better than a hundred thousand prayers in any other mosque. In a supererogatory tawaf one may not uncover one's shoulder or jog. It is sunnah to perform a tawaf of Ka'bah as a salutation to the Sacred Mosque upon entering it, unlike other mosques where on entering them a two rakah prayer is offered as a salutation to the mosque.

Volume 5, Page 72a: Prerequisites of Tawaf, Cleanliness from all major or minor physical impurities.

The Hanafi school holds that cleanliness from impurities is not a necessary condition, but an obligation which, if not found, may be compensated by a sacrifice. Thus if somone performs a Tawaf in a state of minor impurity his tawaf will be valid, but he will have to offer a sheep in sacrifice. If such a person is junub or ha'id his or her tawaf will still be valid, but he or she will have to sacrifice a camel as a penalty and repeat the tawaf as long as he or she is in Makkah. As to the cleanliness of clothes or body, the Hanafi school takes it as a sunnah only.

Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "Tawaf is (similar to) a prayer ... but Allah, the Almighty, has made talking for one (engaged in tawaf) permissible. So, whoso speaks (while performing tawaf) should say only good things. (Tirmizhi and Ad-Daraqutni. Also reported by Al-Hakim, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Al-Sakan as a sound hadith)

'Aishah reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered her apartment and tound her crying. He asked her, "Has your monthly course set in?" That is, are you weeping because you are menstruating? She replied, "Yes." Upon this the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "This is a matter inscribed by Allah, the Almighty, for all daughters of Adam. You should perform all the rites of Hajj, except tawaf (circumambulation) - which you should perform after taking a complete bath (when you are clean)." (Reported by Muslim) 'Aishah also said: "The very first thing that the Prophet (peace be upon him) did upon arriving in Makkah was to perform Wudu and then make a tawaf of Ka'bah." (Bukhari and Muslim)

There is consensus that if one suffers from an illness that causes one to be continuously impure physically, such as leaking urine or continuous bleeding in the case of a menstruating woman, one may perform tawaf without incurring any penalty or need for making compensation. Malik related that a woman came to Abdullah bin Umar seeking a verdict. She said, "I came to the Sacred Mosque to pertorm tawaf, but when I arrived at the door of the Mosque I started bleeding. So I went away and waited until I became clean, and then returned to the Sacred Mosque. But again when I arrived at the door I started bleeding. I went back and returned when I was clean. But when I arrived at the door of the Mosque I started bleeding again. (What should I do?)" Ibn 'Umar said, "That bleeding is a spurt trom the devil. You should take a bath, place some pads on your private parts, and then perform your tawaf."

Volume 5, Page 73: Covering One's 'Awrah

The male should cover from the navel to the knee, and the female all her body except her face, hands and feet. (Tran.) Abu Hurairah reported: "During the Hajj for which Abu Bakr was appointed the leader by Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him), before the Farewell Hajj, Abu Bakr sent me with a group to announce the Day of Nahr - the 10th of Zhul-Hijjah - and to proclaim: 'No idolater nor any naked person shall be allowed to perform tawaf of the Ka'bah after this year.'' (Bukhari and Muslim)

Volume 5, Page 73a: One Must Complete Seven Rounds of the Ka'bah

Thus, if one leaves even a single step in any of the seven rounds that round will not be counted. If one is doubtful as to the number of rounds performed, one must assume the least number of rounds, and then complete the seven rounds. In cases where one completes a Tawaf and then finds oneself not so sure about the number of rounds performed, one incurs no penalty nor is required to do anything.

Volume 5, Page 73b: One Must Begin and End One's Tawaf at the Black Stone. Volume 5, Page 73c: When Making Tawaf the Ka'bah Should Be to the Left of the Person Performing Tawaf. Circumambulating with the Ka bah on one's right is invalid

Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) reported: "When Allah's Messenger arrived in Makkah, he went to the Black Stone, kissed it, and then walked on its right side. He jogged three rounds and walked the remaining four.'' (Muslim)

Volume 5, Page 74: Tawaf Must Be Performed Outside and Around the Ka'bah

Thus if someone were to walk within the Hijr (Commonly known as Hijr Isma'il, and situated to the north of Ka'bah, it is surrounded by a semicircular wall. Of this, only an area of six cubits (three metres approximately) extending from the Ka'bah is its part) his tawaf will not be valid, because both Hijr and Al-Shazarwan (Al-Shazarwan is the construction contiguous to the Ka'bah to which are fixed the rings holding the Ka'bah cover) are a part of the Ka'bah. Allah has commanded us to circumambulate around the Ka'bah and not inside it, saying: "...and circumambulate the Ancient House.'' (Qur'an 22.29) It is preferable, however, to remain close to the Ka'bah, if one can do so easily.

Volume 5, Page 74a: Tawaf (circumambulation) should be immediately followed by Sa'i (between Safa and Marwah)

A short break in between the two, however, may be made. A longer interval because of a genuine excuse will also do no harm and is permissible. The Hanafi and Shafi'i schools hold that such a continuance (of Sa'i immediately after tawaf) is Sunnah of the Prophet.

Similarly there is no harm if one performs tawaf in parts and with long intervals in between, and even if it is done without any genuine reason. Such a person may continue the remaining rounds and complete his tawaf.

Sa'id bin Mansur reported from Humaid bin Zaid that he said: "I saw 'Abdullah bin 'Umar go three or four times around the Ka'bah, and he then sat down for a rest, while his servant fanned him. Then he resumed his Tawaf from where he had left it. Both Shafi'i and Hanafi schools hold that if one's ablution is void during the tawaf; one should redo it and resume the tawaf to complete its remaining rounds, regardless of the length of the interval.

It is reported that once Ibn 'Umar heard the call for prayer while he was performing his tawaf. He interrupted his tawaf and offered the prayers with the congregation. Then he resumed his tawaf from where he had left it.

'Ata is reported to have given a verdict concerning a person who had to interrupt his tawaf in order to participate in a funeral prayer, saying that such a person may resume his tawaf and complete the remaining rounds.

Volume 5, Page 74b: Sunnah of Tawaf

It is Sunnah to perform certain acts in tawaf as given below:

-1- Facing the Black Stone at the start of the tawaf while uttering a takbir (Allahu-Akbar), and a tahlil (La ilaha illahlah), and raising one's hands as they are raised in prayers, and if possible touching it with both hands and kissing it quietly, or placing one's cheek on it. Otherwise. one may touch it with one's hand and kiss the hand, or touch it with something, and then kiss it, or if even that is not possible, one may just point to it with a stick, etc. as is mentioned in some of the ahadith given below.

Ibn 'Umar said: "Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) faced the Black Stone, touched it, and then placed his lips on it and wept for a long time." 'Umar also wept for a long time. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'O 'Umar, this is the place where one should shed tears.''' (Reported by Al-Hakim, who considers it a sound hadith with a sound chain of authorities)

It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that 'Umar bent down towards the Black Stone and said: "By Allah! I know that you are a mere stone, and if I had not seen my beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you and touching you I would have never done so." The Qur'an says: "You have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct)."' (Qur'an 33.32) This was reported by Ahmad and others in slightly different words.

Nafi' said, "I have seen Ibn 'Umar touching the Black Stone with his hand, and then kissing his hand and saying: 'Ever since I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing this, I have never failed to do that.''' (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

Sowayd bin Ghaflah said: "I have seen 'Umar kissing the Black Stone and touching it." He further said: "I know that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was especially very particular about it.'' (Muslim) Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) used to come to Ka'bah, touch the Black Stone and then say: Bismillahi wallahu akbar (In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest.)" (Ahmad) Muslim has reported on the authority of Abu Tufail that he said: "I have seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) making tawaf around the Ka'bah and touching it with a stick and then kissing the stick."

Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Daw'ud reported that 'Umar approached the Black Stone and kissed it. Then he said: "I know that you are a mere stone that can neither harm nor do any good. If I had not seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) kissing you, I would have never kissed you."

Al-Khatabi said: "This shows that abiding by the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is binding, regardless of whether or not we understand its reason or the wisdom behind it."

Such information devolves obligation on all those whom it reaches, even if they may not fully comprehend its significance. It is known, however, that kissing the Black Stone signifies respect for it, recognition of our obligation toward it, and using it as a means of seeking Allah's blessings. Indeed Allah has preferred some stones over others, as He preferred some countries and cities, days and nights, and months over others. The underlying spirit of all this is unquestioning submission to Allah.

In some ahadith which say that "the Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth," we do find, however, a plausible rationale and justification for this statement. In other words whosoever touches the Black Stone he pledges allegiance to Allah, as it were, by giving his hand into the hand of Allah, just as some followers do pledge their fealty to their kings and masters, by kissing and shaking hands with them.

Al-Muhallib said: "The hadith of 'Umar refutes the assertions of those who say that 'The Black Stone is Allah's right hand on earth wherewith He shakes the hands of His slaves."' God forbid that we should ascribe any physical organs to Allah. The commandment to kiss the Black Stone is meant to test and to demonstrate palpably as to who obeys and submits. It may be compared with the command to Iblis to bow to Adam.

We have no definite evidence, however, to believe that any of the stones used in building the Ka'bah originally (by Ibrahim and Isma'il), is still in existence today excepting the Black Stone.

Volume 5, Page 76: Crowding at the Black Stone

There is no harm in crowding around the Black Stone so long as no harm is caused to other people. Ibn 'Umar used to struggle hard to get through the crowd in order to reach the Black Stone, so much so that sometimes (he was struck on the face and) his nose would bleed. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to 'Umar: "O Abu Hafs! You are a strong man. Do not crowd others around the Black Stone. You may hurt a weak person. But if you find an opportunity to reach it in order to kiss it or touch it, do it. If not, then say 'Allahu-Akbar' and continue (your tawaf).'' (Reported by Ash-Shafi'l in his Sunan)

Volume 5, Page 76a: Al-Idtiba' (Uncovering one's shoulder)

It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions declared their intention to perform 'Umrah from al-Ji'ranah by putting on their ihram (Hajj garb) but leaving their right shoulders uncovered, bringing their ihram up from under their right armpits while covering the left shoulder. (Reported by Ahmad and Abu Daw'ud) The majority of scholars holds a similar view and claims that doing so is helpful in ramal ( jogging) while making a tawaf. Malik is of the opinion, however, that doing so is not commended. for it is not a known (practice), nor did he see anyone doing so. There is consensus that it is undesirable in the tawaf prayer (salatul tawaf).

Volume 5, Page 76b: Ramal 23 or Jogging

Ramal means walking fast, vigorously moving the shoulders and taking small steps, giving a sense of strength and energy. Ibn 'Umar reported that Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) jogged from the Black Stone to the Black Stone three times, and walked the remaining four rounds. (Muslim and Ahmad) If a person does not jog in the first three rounds, then he is not required to make it up in the last four rounds. Ramal (Jogging) and idtiba' (uncovering one's right shoulder) are prescribed for men only while making tawaffor 'Umrah. In case of a pilgrim performing Hajj, tawaf is always followed by Sa'i (walking between Safa and Marwah) . Shafi'i school holds that a pilgrim, who does make idtiba' (i.e., uncovers his right shoulder) and performs ramal (i.e., jogs), while making Tawaf al Qudum on arrival and then making Sa'i between Safa and Marwah, is not required to repeat idtiba' and ramal in his Tawaf al Ifada (after returning from 'Arafah). If one does not perform Sa'i after making tawaf and postpones it till after Tawaf az-Ziarah (Tawaf of Visit), he should make idtiba' (uncover his right shoulder) and perform ramal (jog) while making Tawaf az-Ziarah.

Women are not obligated to jog or uncover their right shoulder, because they must properly cover themselves. Ibn 'Umar said: -Women are not obligated to jog around the Ka'bah nor while making Sa`i between Safa and Marwah." (Reported by Al-Baihaqi)

Volume 5, Page 77: Wisdom Behind Ramal

What is the wisdom behind ramal? It is reported by Ibn 'Abbas that when the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions came to Makkah, they were weakened by the fever in Yathrib. Thereupon the idolators said, ''A people weakened with fever have come to you and they are aMicted with evil." Allah. the Almighty, informed His Prophet (peace be upon him) about their saying. So he commanded them to jog through the first three rounds of tawaf around the Ka'bah, and to walk between its two corners. When the idolaters saw the Muslims jogging, they said: "Are those the people you said are weak because of the fever? They are stronger and sturdier than us!" Ibn 'Abbas added: "The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not command them to jog all through the seven rounds in order not to overexert themselves." This was reported by Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Daw'ud, whose wording is given here.

'Umar was of the opinion that jogging be stopped as there was no longer any need for it after the Muslims had become strong and powerful. But he decided, however, to leave it (in its original form) so that the future generations of Muslims could share a form and a feeling similar to that observed and felt by early Muslims. Muhibbuddin At-Tabari said: "Sometimes certain instructions are prescribed in the religion for a specific reason, and later even though that specilic reason no longer exists yet the instructions still remain valid."

Zaid bin Aslam reported from his father that he said: "I heard 'Umar ibn Al-Khattab saying: 'Why jog around the Ka'bah today'? Why uncover our shoulders (in tawaf)? Allah has made Islam strong and powerful, and banished disbelief and the disbelievers, yet we shall never abandon what we used to do in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him)."

Volume 5, Page 78: Touching the Yemeni Corner

This is based on the statement of Ibn 'Umar in which he said "I never saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) touching any other parts of Ka'bah except the two corners: The Black Stone and the Yemeni corner." And he added, "No matter how hard and difficult the circumstances, I have not failed to touch these two corners - the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone - ever since I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing so." (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

A pilgrim making tawaf touches these two corners, and no others, because of their special merits and excellence. The Black Stone is distinguished by two things:

-1- it is placed on the foundations raised by the Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him), and

-2- it marks the beginning as well as the end of tawaf. The Yemeni corner is directly opposite to it and, like the Black Stone, it is also laid on the foundations raised by Ibrahim.

When Ibn 'Umar was told about 'Aishah's statement that "Some of the Hijr Isma'il is part of the Ka'bah" he said: "I think that 'Aishah heard that from the Prophet (peace be upon him). I think that the Prophet (peace be upon him) never failed to touch them while making a tawaf These two, however, are not at the foundations of the House, and the people circumambulate around the Hijr because of that. (Abu Dawud)

The Muslim community, however, is in agreement concerning the desirability of touching these two Yemeni corners. A person making tawaf of Ka'bah may not touch the other two corners. Ibn Hibban has reported in his Sahih that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: "The Black Stone and the Yemeni corner cause the sins to be forgiven."

Volume 5, Page 78a: Offering a Two Rak'ah Prayer After Tawaf

It is sunnah to offer a two rak'ah prayer after completing the tawaf at the Station of Ibrahim (peace be upon him), or at any other place in the Sacred Mosque, regardless of whether it is a supererogatory tawaf or obligatory one (as in Hajj or 'Umrah).

Jabir reported that "When the Prophet (peace be upon him) came to Makkah, he went around the Ka'bah seven times, then went to the Station of Ibrahim and recited the verse (Qur'an 2.125): "And take of the Station of Abraham a place of prayer." He prayed behind it, and then went to the Black Stone and kissed it." (Reported by Tirmizhi who considers it a sound hadith)

In this two rak'ah prayer, it is sunnah to recite Surah Al-Kafirun, in the first rak 'ah, and Surah Al-Ikhlas in the second rak 'ah, after reciting Al-Fatihah. (Reported by Muslim and others) These two rak'ahs may be offered at any time of the day and night including the prohibited times.

Jubair bin Mut'im reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "O Bani Abd Manaf! Do not prevent anyone from performing tawaf around the Ka'bah. One may pray (in the Sacred Mosque) any time during the day or night." (Reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and Tirmizhi who regards it a sound hadith) Ash-Shafi'i and Ahmad hold this view.

Though it is sunnah to offer this two rak'ah prayer after the tawaf in the Sacred Mosque, it may also be offered outside the Mosque. Umm Salamah reported that she performed a tawaf around the House riding, but she did not offer the two rak'ah prayer until she had left the Mosque. (Bukhari) Malik reported from 'Umar that he offered these two rak'ahs at Zhi Tuwa valley. Bukhari also has reported that 'Umar prayed (these two rak'ahs) outside the Sacred Mosque.

If one offered a prescribed prayer after the tawclf then he need not offer this two rak'ah prayer. The Shafi'i school holds this view, which is also in accordance with the well known position of Ahmad. The Maliki and the Hanafi schools are of the opinion that these two rak'ahs must be offered and no other prayer can replace them.

Volume 5, Page 79: Passing in Front of Worshippers in the Sacred Mosque

It is permissible to offer prayer in the Sacred Mosque while the people, male and female, pass in front of the worshipper. There is no harm in it, and it is one of the special characteristics of the Sacred Mosque. Kathir bin Kathir bin Al-Mutalib bin Wida'ah reported from some of his family members and from his grandfather that he said: "I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) offering prayer in the Sacred Mosque in the area adjacent to Bani Sahm while people passed in front of him but he did not place any sutrah (protection) in front of him." Suffiyan bin 'Uyainah said, "There was no partition between him and the Ka'bah." (Reported by Abu Daw ud Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah)

Volume 5, Page 79a: Men and Women Performing Tawaf Together

Ibn Juraij reported: "'Ata told me that when Ibn Hisham forbade women from performing tawaf along with men he asked him, 'How dare you prevent them while the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed tawaf along with other men?' He added: 'I asked him:"Did they do so betore or after the commandment to observe veil?" He said: "They did so after the revelation of the commandment to veil." I said: "How could they intermingle with men?" He said: "They did not intermingle with men. 'Aishah used to perform tawaf keeping apart from men and without intermingling with them. A woman asked her, "O Mother of Believers ! Shall we touch the Black Stone and kiss it? 'Aishah said: "Get away from here, and she refused to join her. (Bukhari) They used to go disguised at night and perform tawaf with men, but when they entered the Mosque, they would wait and go in when the men left.

Women may touch and kiss the Black Stone when there is an opportunity and no men are around. It is reported that 'Aishah said to a woman, "Do not crowd with others at the Black Stone, but if you find a chance, touch and kiss it, otherwise if there is crowding, then say a takhir (Allah is the Greatest) when you are opposite to it, and make your tawaf and do not cause any harm to anyone."

Volume 5, Page 80: Making a Tawaf while Riding

A person may, even if he is able to walk, perform tawaf while riding, provided there is a valid reason for doing so.

Ibn 'Abbas reported that during the Farewell Pilgrimage the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed tawaf while riding his camel, and touched the Black Stone with a stick (that he carried). (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

Jabir reported that during the Farewell Pilgrimage the Prophet (peace be upon him) performed tawaf and made Sa'i between Safa and Marwah while riding on his mount, so as to show it to the people, to draw their attention, and (to give them an opportunity) to ask him any questions (they had), and the people were crowding around him."

Volume 5, Page 80a: Intermingling of a Leper with Others in Tawaf

Malik reported from Ibn Abi Mulaikah that 'Umar bin Al-Khattab saw a woman aMicted with leprosy performing tawaf with others. He said to her, "O maidservant of Allah! Do not harm others. Why do you not stay in your home?" She did so and stayed at her home. Upon the death of 'Umar, a man visited her and said, "The one who forbade you to circumambulate the Ka'bah has passed away. You may now go and perform tawaf." She replied, "I shall not obey a person in his life, and disobey him after his death."

Volume 5, Page 80b: Desirability of Drinking Zamzam Water

Upon completion of the seven rounds of the tawaf; and after offering the two rak'ahs by the Station of Ibrahim, it is encouraged to drink water from the well of Zamzam.

Both Bukhari and Muslim confirm that the Prophet (peace be upon him) drank of Zamzam water, and said, "It is blessed (water); it is food for the hungry, and a healing for the sick.' It is reported that the angel Gabriel had washed the heart of the Prophet (peace be upon him) with its water on the Night Journey.

At-Tabarani in his Al-Kabir, and Ibn Hibban have reported from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'The best water on earth is the water of Zamzam. It is food for the hungry, and a healing for the sick." (Al-Munzhri said that the chain of narrators of this hadith is sound)

Volume 5, Page 81: Etiquette of Drinking Zamzam Water

A person drinking Zamzam water should intend and hope for healing, blessings and whatever is best for him in this life and in the hereafter. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The water of Zamzam is (good) for whatever it is intended."

Suwaid bin Saeed reported: "When the water of Zamzam was brought to Abdullah bin Al-Mobarak I saw that he drank a little, then turning his face towards the Ka'bah supplicated, 'O Allah! Ibn Abi Al-Mawali told us on the authority of Mohammad bin Al-Monkader, who narrated from Jaber that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "The water of Zamzam is good for whatever one intends (while drinking it)." I intend to drink this water to spare myself from going thirsty on the Day of Judgment.' Then he drank the rest of the water." (Reported by Al-Baihaqi, and Ahmad with a sound chain of authorities)

Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The water of Zamzam is good for whatever one intends (while drinking it). If you drink it seeking healing, Allah will give you healing. If you drink it to satisfy your hunger, Allah will satisfy your hunger. If you drink it to quench your thirst, Allah will quench your thirst. Zamzam is a well dug by the angel Gabriel by which Allah quenched the thirst of Isma'il." This was reported by AdDaraqutni and Al-Hakim who added, "And if you drink it seeking refuge with Allah, Allah will give you refuge."

It is desirable that one should drink Zamzam water in three breaths, face the Qiblah, drink as much as possible, praise and thank and supplicate to Him as Ibn 'Abbas did. Abu Molaikah reported: "A man came to Ibn 'Abbas. He asked the man, 'Where are you coming from?' The man replied: 'I am coming from the well of Zamzam.' Ibn 'Abbas asked him, 'Did you drink of it as you are supposed to?' "The man asked: 'O Ibn 'Abbas, how am I supposed to drink it?' Ibn 'Abbas replied: 'When you drink its water you should face the direction of the Qiblah, remember Allah, drink it in three breaths, drink as much as you can, and praise and thank Allah when you finish drinking.' The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, ' A major difference between us and the hypocrites is that they do not drink their fill of the Zamzam water'." (Reported by Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Hakim)

Ibn 'Abbas used to supplicate Allah, whenever he drank Zamzam water: "Allahumma inni as'aluka 'ilman nafi`an wa rizqan wasi'an wa shifa an min kuli da in (O Allah! Grant me beneficial knowledge, bountiful provision, and a healing from every disease)."

Volume 5, Page 82: The Origin of Zamzam Well

Explaining the origin of Zamzam Ibn 'Abbas said: "When Hajar reached the (mountain) of Marwah in search of water for her baby son Isma'il and herself to quench their thirst. she heard a sound, and said to herself, "Quiet." She again heard the sound, whereupon she said, "I have heard you. Help me, if you can." All of a sudden she found an angel at the place where now Zamzam is. He either dug it with his heel or touched it (the ground) with his wing and a spring of water appeared. Hajar encircled the water with soil. She took some water in a container she had, and water kept bubbling up unchecked."

Ibn 'Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "'May Allah shower His mercy on Isma'il's mother. Had she left it untouched, or (the narrator is not sure) the Prophet said, had she not drunk of its water, the Zamzam would have turned into a clearflowing spring.' He added, 'So she drank the water and gave some to her son.' The angel said to her, 'Fear no loss, because this is the site of Allah's House, which this boy and his father shall build. Allah never permits His servant to be lost. At the site of the House was a hill that was split by flood waters running down its right and left."'

Volume 5, Page 82a: Excellence of Supplications at Al-Multazim

Al-Multazim is the part of Ka'bah between its door and the Black Stone. After drinking the water of Zamzam, it is recommended that one should make special supplications at Al-Multazim. Ibn 'Abbas reported that he used to stand between the Black Stone corner and the Ka'bah door and said, "The space between the Black Stone and the door of the Ka'bah is called 'AlMultazim' and whoever stands here and supplicates to Allah, he gives him whatever he supplicates for." (Al-Baihaqi)

'Amr bin Shu'aib reported from his father, and he from his father that he said, "I have seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) placing his face and chest against Al-Multazim."

(Some scholars including Bukhari say Al-Hateem is Al-Multazim. To support their view they cite the hadith of the Night Journey in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said "While I was asleep in (the area called) ' al-Hateem" or also called "al-Hijr...")

This is based on the statement of Ibn 'Umar in which he said "I never saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) touching any other parts of Ka'bah except the two corners: The Black Stone and the Yemeni corner." And he added, "No matter how hard and difficult the circumstances, I have not failed to touch these two corners - the Yemeni Corner and the Black Stone - ever since I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) doing so." (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

Volume 5, Page 82b: Entering Ka'bah and Hijr Isma'il and its Excellence

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the Ka'bah along with Usamah bin Zaid, and Uthman bin Talhah and closed its door behind them. When they came out, Bilal informed me that the Prophet (peace be upon him) offered a prayer inside the Ka'bah between the two Yemeni corners." (Bukhari and Muslim) This has led some scholars to conclude that entering Ka'bah and offering prayer inside it is sunnah. Others, however, say that even if it is a sunnah, it is not a part of Hajj rites, as stated by Ibn 'Abbas when he said: "O people, entering the Ka'bah is not one of the rites of Hajj.'' (Reported by al-Hakim with a sound chain of authorities)

For a pilgrim unable to enter the Ka'bah it is recommended that he should enter the Hijr Isma'il and offer prayer there, because it is a part of the Ka'bah. Ahmad reported on sound authority from Sa'id bin Jubair that 'Aishah said: "O Prophet of Allah ! All your family except me have been inside the Ka'bah ! " The Prophet (peace be upon him) said to her, "Send for Shaibah (His name was Ibn 'Uthman bin Talhah; he was tbe key-bearer of the Ka'bah) so that he should open the door for you." She did as he had told her to do. Shaibah said, "We could never open it, during the night during the pre-Islamic days, nor during the days of Islam. The Prophet (peace be upon him) told 'Aishah, "Pray inside the Hijr Isma'il. It is a part of Ka'bah, but your people left it out while rebuilding the Ka'bah and did not include it in its structure."

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